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Critical Appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Critical Appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Sample Answer 

Critical Appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Description of the Research

Nurses now use Watson’s theory of human caring to understand their own professional, disciplinary reputation, and unique science. The theory’s concept best applies to both the general public, who receive nursing care, and the nurse who provides patient care. As a result, nurses can validate their profession and distinguish themselves from the medical profession. The public, comprised of individuals in need of healing, is most affected by the caring model.

Jones (2018) conducted a quantitative study to show how Jean Watson’s theory of human care affects nurses’ perceptions of psychiatric patients and how the care environment can be adjusted to speed up recovery. In most cases, nurses’ type of care is influenced by a number of factors, including a lack of quality support from the administration, an unbalanced nurse-patient ratio, and patients who exhibit antisocial behaviors such as failure to adhere to prescribed regimens and aggression, which leads to burnout and low morale. The author was working on a study to connect Jean Watson’s theory to nurses working in a psychiatric unit. Eleven people were chosen. The study’s designs were pre- and post-intervention, according to the author. The t-test method was used to analyze the data. Following the implementation of Watson’s theory, it was concluded that nurse satisfaction increased and the psychiatrist care environment produced positive outcomes.

Critical Evaluation

Jones’s study is critiqued in this paper using Fineout-“Rapid Overholt’s Critical Appraisal Checklist” (2019). The “Critical Appraisal Checklists” are divided into seven subtopics.

The purpose of the research

This study presents a clear purpose and direction. The goal is to determine the impact of Watson’s theory on changing nurses’ attitudes toward psychiatric patient care settings (Fineout-Overholt, 2019). The research is being conducted in a “rural community hospital as measured by an improved version of the combined Assessment of Psychiatric Environments (CAPE) instrument” (p 12). The primary issue investigated is nurses’ attitudes toward establishing a care setting in a rural community. The target population is nurses because they assisted the authors in relating the study’s findings to the purpose applicability; thus, the research easily engages the targeted audience in understanding the issues discussed in this article from a distance.

The sample size

Given that the issue under investigation affects nurses working in psychiatry care settings, it is obvious that the 11 nurses chosen as the sample size for this study specialized in psychiatry and mental health. To ensure that the results are not generalizable, a non-probability type of convenient sampling method was used. However, the quantitative study would not match the non-probability technology because some members would believe the study’s results were biased. Twelve of the twelve selected participants were nurses who agreed to participate in the study. Because of the small sample size of 11, it was determined that the findings were not representative.


This study, like others, used an instrument developed, tested, and proven to be reliable and valid by other researchers. Despite researchers failing to provide an operational description of the study variables, which are the nurse’s attitudes before and after incorporating Jean Watson’s theory, the adopted tool focused on the issue at hand. When variables are not clearly distinguished, it is difficult to improve the validity of a study through replication. The five questions that were unrelated to nurses’ perceptions were removed by the staff version of the instrument. The alpha Cronbach Test, which was used to assess the device’s reliability, was found to be 0.91. The person correlation indicated the tool’s statistical significance. After comparing participant responses, the confidence interval of 95% suggested that the method was valid. Finally, because the findings were credible, reliable, and accurate, the author was able to easily generalize the results to the target population.

Data examination

The t-test method was used to analyze data in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between nurses’ perceptions in the care setting and Watson’s theory. The purpose of this research was found to be appropriately addressed because the T-test method used was statistically inferential. Notably, if the results of a t-test are statistically significant, a researcher can use the findings to clearly implement into practice and generalize the target audience.

Unexpected occurrence

One participant out of the 11 chosen did not complete the pretest, implying that the number of participants enrolled in the pre-and post-tests was 10 and 11, respectively. The reason for the participant’s exclusion from the pretest was not explained. As a result of the missing data due to the difference in group sizes, the findings’ reliability was impacted. When the data collected is incomplete, the internal validity of the research suffers, compromising the trustworthiness of the findings.


The study’s findings are thoroughly explained. However, the researchers did not base their findings on previously reviewed literature. It is a test to see if these findings are supported or refuted by previous analysts. An examination finding supported by previous research is reliable and can undoubtedly be adjusted for training in a different setting. The dependability of the results is compromised, preventing this examination from being generalized to an objective population.

What this means for clinical practice

Despite the fact that researchers were unable to generalize the study’s findings, this examination is critical to the clinic environment to which it was directed. When healthcare facilities implement the Jean Watson theory, the perceptions of nurses working in psychiatric care settings can be improved. Furthermore, once the theory is implemented in clinical practice, the nurse’s satisfaction improves, leading to better care provision. It is suggested that a larger sample size be used in another investigation and the results compared to the recently documented literature to strengthen the findings of this research. Most universities now use the principle of caring philosophies in nursing education. Furthermore, hospitals are basing their nursing services on Carita’s perspective. As a result, both institutions benefit from Watson’s theory. Her theory’s framework encourages nurses to make subjective decisions based on rational and non-rational reflection (Jones, 2018). This theory emphasizes the importance of assisting nurses in displaying both ontological and subjective abilities in their caring environment. It implies that the purpose of nursing practice is to improve critical thinking and clinical reasoning. As a result, competent nurses exemplify these valuable qualities.

In a nutshell, Watson’s theory has benefited future nurses throughout history. Because Watson’s idea was based on creating meaning and focusing on nursing as an evolving field and a unique health career, the theory is applicable in today’s tumultuous healthcare setting. Nurses must remember that they are the patients’ advocates for care, as nursing is rapidly moving to the forefront of our healthcare system (Jones, 2018).


Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). A guide to a critical appraisal of evidence. Nursing2020 Critical Care, 14(3), 24-30.

Jones, S. (2018). Watson’s Theory of Human Caring: Effect on Nurse Perception of Care Environment.


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Assignment Prompt
Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is a conceptual thread in the USU College of Nursing’s curriculum framework. The purpose of this assignment is to offer students the opportunity to be exposed to Human Caring Science while providing students with the skills of critical appraisal of evidence.

Critical Appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Critical Appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

1. Students will select one nursing research article that focuses on a study that used Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring as a theoretical framework.
2. Students should use as a guide, an appropriate Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist found in Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt (2019; pp. 708-722).
3. The critiques are to be informal, although correct grammar, spelling, etc., are expected. The critique should include a brief description of the study that was reviewed and should address elements of the study relevant to the critique.
4. Students will provide a written critique on a critical appraisal of the elements relevant to the nature of the research study such as type of study, design, quality of the study; and rationale, as well as implications for practice and further research and/or evaluation.
The grade will be based on the accuracy, level of content, and structure of the document.
Examples of research articles incorporating Jean Watson’s theory in the USU online library:
Durgun Ozan, Y., & Okumus, H. (2017). Effects of nursing care based on
Watson’s theory of human caring on anxiety, distress, and coping when
infertility treatment fails: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Caring
Sciences, 6(2), 95-109.
Rossillao, K. (2018). Caritas education: Theory to practice…2018
National Teaching Institute research abstracts presented at the AACN
National Teaching Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, May 21-24, 2018.
American Journal of Critical Care, 27(3), e 14 – e15.

• Due: Monday, 11:59 pm PT
• Length: 4-5 pages (including title and reference pages)
• Format: Formal paper in APA 7th ed format
• Citations: If used (not required) cite references according to APA 7th ed.
• File name: Save the file with Student First Name_Last Name_Appraisal
See USU NUR Writing Assignment Rubric for additional details and point weighting.

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