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Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper

Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper

Sample Answer 

Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper

Developed in the 1950s and 1960s, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy posed a powerful challenge to the principles of psychoanalysis (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2014). Unlike other theoretical approaches, CBT has had many theorists contribute to its evolution. B.F. Skinner’s and Ivan Pavlov’s approaches concluded that reinforcement and punishment could be used to modify behavior. People were studied using behavior and learning theory by Eysenck et al. “Learning theory was developed because it was assumed that all psychological disorders resulted from faulty childhood learning” (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2014, p. 325). During his “Bobo Doll experiment,” Albert Bandura discovered that behavior was learned through modeling and observation of caregivers’ behavior. Because of the empirical research that has been conducted over the years that confirms that behavior can be modified and shaped, cognitive behavioral Therapy is one of the most solidified approaches. Aaron Beck created cognitive Therapy to treat depression.


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy appeals to me because everyone wants to be rewarded for their actions. People are genuinely good, but if they have received positive reinforcement for negative behavior, they may develop negative behavioral patterns. According to Seligman and Reichenberg (2014), “In reciprocal determinism, our behavior influences our environment, and thus cognition, behavior, and environment become intertwined in the creation of a human experience” (pg. 332). A person suffering from depression, for example, has self-schemata (beliefs) about himself or herself feeling unlovable, deficient, worthless, and inadequate. This concept also includes the negativity that an individual projects onto his or her surroundings (McGinn, L. K., 2000).

Theorists of social learning link behaviors learned from caregivers and the environment. People find it easier to associate negativity with rejection and denial in relationships, careers, and/or school. These thoughts are the result of an earlier life experience. For example, if a woman’s fiancée cancels their engagement, she will associate the break-up with personal flaws and feelings of unworthiness and will conclude that she will never marry or have children. She may develop resentment toward future relationships, feelings of inadequacy in the absence of a mate, and feelings of worthlessness. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy gives clients a sense of belonging and tools to change negative behavior. It also identifies areas of concern for the client to observe and make changes to find peace.

Relationships that are therapeutic

J.C. Norcross, J.C. “The culture wars in psychotherapy pit the treatment method against the therapy relationship” (2011). Do treatments heal people, or do relationships heal them? Which is the most accurate vision for psychotherapy practice, research, and education?” (Ch. 1). (Ch. 1). The therapeutic relationship is an important component of treatment; the more at ease a client is with his or her therapist, the more effective the Therapy. A therapist cannot provide effective treatment if the client is unwilling to express themselves and cooperate in Therapy.

When dealing with high-profile criminals with psychosis, personality disorders, or sociopaths, cognitive behavioral Therapy is the theoretic approach of choice. Due to the client’s cognitive ability, developing a positive therapeutic relationship with these individuals can be difficult. People suffering from psychosis are unable to connect emotionally. Psychotic clients may have difficulty trusting or believing in the therapeutic process, and it may be difficult for the therapist to empathize with the client’s unusual experiences (Evans-Jones et al., 2004). (2009). The therapeutic relationship is critical to CBT for psychosis work because the therapist and client will collaborate to reduce the negative impact of the client’s beliefs on their daily life (Fowler et al., 1995).

Interpersonal style is a component of the therapeutic formula; the majority of clients with whom I will work will be aggressive or passive. As a therapist, I will use the assertive approach with my clients to listen and give them or their tools to figure out why their behaviors are affecting their rational cognition rather than taking control of the therapeutic alliance. Being assertive will teach clients not only how to face problems and accept responsibility for their actions but also how to overcome the beliefs that make them feel worthless and inadequate and to seek self-actualizing stimuli.


Because of the extensive research that has been conducted to validate the effectiveness of treatment, cognitive behavioral Therapy is one of the most effective methods of treatment. Because behaviors are measurable and observable, the clinician can act on stimulus-driven directives to form a positive therapeutic alliance. A therapist has the tools provided by CBT to account for, measure, and observe behaviors when dealing with diversity and multi-culture. This reduces the possibility of making a mistake or misdiagnosing a client. A successful therapeutic alliance requires knowledge of an individual’s background. Cognitive behavioral Therapy enables clinicians to diagnose and treat clients regardless of cultural background.

A therapist must follow the American Psychological Association’s and the American Mental Health Counselors Association’s code of ethics. These organizations provide guidelines for treating each client, regardless of his or her background. A counselor must understand each client’s cultural differences; a lack of knowledge or resources when dealing with a specific client will be detrimental to the treatment process’s effectiveness.

Because CBT is a collaboration between the client and the therapist, the therapist must understand his or her client’s cultural background. Roysircar claims that G. “The extended case method is a timely response to calls for a scientific approach that can be used to improve empirically and theoretically informed practice interventions,” says 2004. It acknowledges the universal and idiosyncratic nature of human experiences while also emphasizing culture-specific emic perspectives in the development of theories to better understand the lived experiences of individuals who may be ignored or objectified” (headnotes).

CBT’s effectiveness

Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a group of interventions based on the premise that cognitive factors contribute to the persistence of mental disorders and psychological distress. The central tenet of this treatment approach, pioneered by Beck (1970) and Ellis (1962), is that maladaptive cognitions contribute to the persistence of emotional distress and behavioral problems. These maladaptive cognitions, according to Beck’s model, include general beliefs, or schemas, about the world, the self, and the future, which give rise to specific and automatic thoughts in specific situations. According to the basic model, therapeutic strategies to change these maladaptive cognitions result in changes in emotional distress and problematic behaviors (Beck, A.T., 2010).

Four separate meta-analytic studies have been conducted to support the efficacy of CBT for criminal offenders (U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, 2011). Despite the fact that there are numerous theoretical orientations and interventions for criminal activity, behavioral Therapy has proven to be the most effective intervention method in reducing recidivism rates. According to Losel and Schumaker (2005), “physical treatments, such as surgical castration and hormonal treatment, have been demonstrated to have greater efficacy in reducing sexual recidivism in comparison to CBT, with large significant odds ratios for both of these alternative interventions” (Criminal Offenders).

After conducting research, I discovered that there are over 1,100 articles containing meta-analyses on cognitive behavioral Therapy and its effectiveness. Of the 1,100 articles, 808 are non-duplicate. There have been 269 meta-analyses conducted since 2000, with a significant increase in studies conducted between 2010 and 2011.

Cognitive behavioral Therapy is one of the few psychological concepts that is supported by empirical research; many other concepts and therapies derive from it. Behavioral Therapy has three generations. The United States population is made up of 25% minorities, but only 5.1% of CBT counselors are minorities, making understanding diversity critical in CBT practice (Pamela A. Hayes, 1995).

CBT’s Limitations

Although cognitive behavioral Therapy has many benefits when dealing with people from different cultures, it also has some drawbacks. The problem is that there are no value-neutral psychotherapies. CBT is a value-neutral approach to helping people. Another flaw in CBT is that the creators are members of socially dominant groups, giving them the stigma of bias toward members of other social groups. “However, in psychology, cognitive behaviorism, and throughout the world, the values of the dominant social group are frequently assumed to be universal because the values of marginalized groups are either not as well-known or actively suppressed” (Hays, 1995, para. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy’s Limitations).

Assertiveness, personal independence, verbal ability, and change are highly valued in the United States, but these values are not valued as highly in other countries (Hays, 1995). Because the United States is the most diverse country in the world, understanding that different cultures have different measures of social norms is an essential component in therapeutic growth. Because cognitive behavioral Therapy is centered on gaining self-control and blaming the individual for unjust societal norms, a therapist must be careful not to deliberately degrade or make a client feel worthless with this approach. This could be harmful to a client from a country where societal norms do not play a role in determining character.

Ethics of the American Counselors Association

“The American Counseling Association’s mission is to improve the quality of life in society by promoting professional counselor development, advancing the counseling profession, and using the counseling profession and practice to promote respect for human dignity and diversity” (Mission Statement). The client-therapist relationship is the most important factor in Therapy; without it, no other element of the therapeutic alliance will be confirmed. The risk of not establishing a positive client-therapist relationship is that ineffective techniques will be used. Because CBT is a client-therapist collaboration, the client and therapist must have a mutual interest in order to achieve the ultimate therapeutic goal. The therapeutic relationship is essential so that the counselor can collect accurate and informative statements from clients in order to accurately diagnose his or her client and begin aligning the sessions to assist the client in overcoming the problem that brought him or her to counseling.

The second most important ethic is professional competence. To work in a new specialty area, a counselor must have sufficient training, education, and experience. This is significant because if a therapist applies a theoretical concept that is insufficient for the client, the underlying problems will not be discovered, potentially leading to the client becoming resentful of the therapeutic process and undermining the counselor’s ability to do his or her job. Impairment is also an important factor for the counselor; a counselor must be consciously aware of his or her own physical, emotional, and mental problems in order to avoid transference in the therapeutic alliance. This will harm both the counselor and the client and may result in a negative outcome for the client. The American Counselor Association’s code of ethics includes a detailed list of do’s and don’ts for counselors when counseling a client. The last thing a counselor wants is for a client to complete the therapeutic alliance successfully.

Use of Two Theoretical Techniques

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is primarily used to treat people with borderline personality disorder who are suicidal on a regular basis. Tommy, an 18-year-old senior at Michael Bell High School, has been threatening to kill himself. He claims he has had no reason to live since his father’s death, and his personality has frequently shifted. The philosophy of dialectical behavioral Therapy is the biopsychosocial view of disorders, and the incorporation of behavioral Therapy will aid Tommy’s belief and attitude of mindfulness, acceptance, and compassion. The goal of DBT is to teach Tommy how to regulate his emotions, reduce his suffering, and improve his relationships with his peers and family (Selig- man et al.,, 2014).

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a two-way street between the client and the therapist. Tommy is in charge of implementing and coordinating treatment plans during Therapy, which encourages him to accept responsibility for his difficulties (Doyle, K. A. 2011). Tommy will learn to differentiate between irrational and rational thoughts, allowing him to identify, debate, and modify irrational beliefs. To help Tommy think more rationally, the therapist will use persuasion, exaggeration, instruction, and anecdotes from his own life. REBT will help Tommy understand why he feels the way he does and will help him overcome negative thoughts and irrational beliefs that he has no purpose in life since his father’s death.

Development Strategy

I intend to continue researching Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in its entirety. This theory has struck a chord with me because it appears to be the most effective approach when dealing with people suffering from high-profile disorders like psychosis, schizophrenia, and personality disorder. I’ve found a spark for researching the emotional causality of people, society, and the environment. I will conduct research, read, develop, and apply CBT, DBT, and REBT to events in my life to determine which therapeutic approach is best suited to the problem at hand. I will continue to educate myself on cognitive behavioral Therapy because of its proven effectiveness, and it is a theoretical concept that has been validated by over 1,100 studies conducted since its inception in the 1950s.


There are approximately 440 theoretical concepts, and it was difficult to choose one theory over the others. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the most commonly used concept in psychology and counseling. What I like best about CBT is that it has spawned several other concepts, giving me, as an aspiring counselor, a variety of therapeutic approaches to choose from. This is critical, especially when dealing with clients in prison who may have personality disorders, psychosis, or are sociopaths. DBT and REBT are two other therapies that I intend to study in order to become a more effective counselor.


American Counselors Association. (2014). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

Beck, A.T. (1995). Cognitive Therapy: Nature and relation to behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy. 1970; 1:184–200.

Evans-Jones, C., Peters, E., & Barker, C. (2009). The therapeutic relationship in CBT for psychosis: Client, therapist and therapy factors. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(5), 527–40. doi:

Hays, P. A. (1995). Multicultural Applications of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26(3), 309–315. Retrieved from

McGinn, L. K. (2000). Cognitive behavioral Therapy of depression: Theory, treatment, and empirical status. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 54(2), 257–62. Retrieved from

Norcross, J. C. (2011). Psychotherapy Relationships That Work: Evidence-Based Responsiveness. Retrieved from of-9780199737208-chapter-1.

Roysircar, G. (2004). Child survivor of war: A case study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(3), 168–179. Retrieved from

Seligman, L., & Reichenberg, L. W. (2014). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. (2011). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Retrieved from


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Behavior Therapy or Cognitive Behavior therapy

Required Assignments (RAs) are substantive assignments intended to measure student performance against selected course objectives and/or program outcomes within a course. RAs are completed by all students across all Argosy University campuses and delivery formats without exception.

Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper

Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper

Each RA contributes to a significant portion of the overall course grade and is assessed by faculty using the grading criteria designed for that assignment. These are individual assignments and students earn individual grades. Required Assignment: Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper 300 pts

Description of RA: From what you have learned in this course, select a theoretical perspective that interests you the most. In this assignment, you will conduct a literature search on that theoretical approach and develop a personalized plan for your continued development.

Developmental Considerations: Discuss how your theory of choice addresses the multicultural nature of our diverse society and individual developmental needs.

The effect of the theory on a variety of clients is accurate and clearly stated. /38   pts.

Theoretical Strengths: Present research findings in support of the effectiveness of your chosen theoretical approach.

Findings are presented of at least one peer-reviewed, efficacy study on the chosen theoretical approach. /30   pts.

Theoretical Limitations: Present research findings related to the limitations of your chosen theoretical approach.

Findings are presented of at least one peer-reviewed study examining the limitations of the chosen approach. /30   pts.

Ethical Considerations: Identify at least two ethical standards from the ACA Code of Ethics that address the inappropriate use of an approach or technique. Discuss specific, potentially harmful effects of doing so.

At least two relevant ethical standards are identified, defined, and applied to the potential misapplication of a technique or approach. At least two examples of potentially harmful effects are identified. /30   pts.

Technique Application: Provide an   example of how you would apply a minimum of two

specifically theoretical techniques to a fictitious client’s need.

The description of implementation correctly aligns with each theory. The specific needs of the client are addressed, and the description of how each theory addresses the specific needs is clear and accurate. /54   pts.

Plan for Development:   Describe how you will continue to develop your knowledge and skills related to the selected theory.

The plan includes details and specific resources that will be accessed and utilized to increase and enhance knowledge and skills related to the theory of choice. /10   pts.

Academic Writing

Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources (i.e. APA);   and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Written in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in appropriate and accurate representation and attribution of sources; and displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. The use of scholarly sources aligns with specified assignment requirements. /28   pts.

Total /300   pts

Theoretical Orientation Development Plan Paper Review the literature and construct a paper presenting and supporting your personal counseling theoretical preference (choosing from the major theories studied in this course). You should conduct a computerized literature search on the particular theoretical approach that feels like the best fit. Remember to select a theory that aligns with your worldview and your perspective of the best therapeutic relationship. References should be from empirical/scholarly works that support and further define the position. You should include the following in your paper:

• Summarize the fundamental elements of your theory of choice, including definitions of important terms, personality development, and major historical figures associated with the theory.

• Explain how your personal worldview (e.g. core beliefs about others and the world) connects to the theory of choice. • Explain how the therapeutic relationship aligns with your interpersonal style.

• Discuss how your theory of choice addresses the multicultural nature of our diverse society.

• Present support for the effectiveness of your chosen theoretical approach by examining and analyzing the existing efficacy-based research. Include findings across age groups, gender, and/or multicultural groups.

• Discuss limitations of your chosen therapeutic approach, including any clients or presenting problems for which it may not be appropriate. Support your ideas with findings from existing research on the approach.

• Identify the ethical standards from the American Counseling Association’s Code of Ethics (2014) that apply to the use of an approach determined to be unsuitable for a particular group or presenting problem. Discuss the potential harm that could be caused by applying an unsuitable approach. Spring 1 – 2018

• Provide an example of how you would apply a minimum of two specific theoretical techniques to a fictitious client’s need.

• Provide a plan for how you will continue to develop your knowledge and skills related to that theory.

Your final deliverable will be a Word document, approximately 8-10 pages in length, utilizing a minimum of 7 scholarly references. Your paper should be written in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, punctuation, and APA format.

CACREP Standards: 2.F.5.a, 5.C.1.a, 5.C.1.b, 2.F.5.g, 2.F.5.h, 2.F.5.j, 5.C.3.b, 2.F.5.n, 2.F.2.c,

5.C.2.c, 2.F.1.i, 5.C.2.l

Theoretical Summary:   Summarize the fundamental elements of your theory of choice, including definitions of important terms, personality development, and major historical figures associated with the theory.

The summary clearly states all critical elements of the theory of choice.   All relevant technical terms are defined, a theoretical understanding of personality development is described, and the importance of each historical figure is clearly and accurately stated. /40   pts.

Personal Worldview: Explain how your personal worldview connects to the theory of choice.

The correlation between the student’s worldview and the theory of choice is clearly stated. The effect of the worldview on the use of the theory is appropriate. /20   pts.

Interpersonal Style: Explain how the therapeutic relationship described in your theory of choice aligns with your interpersonal style.

The correlation between important aspects of the therapeutic relationship and the student’s interpersonal style is clearly stated. How the student’s interpersonal style would be appropriate or be a challenge is clearly stated. /20   pts.

Cultural and

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