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Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Sample Answer 

Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Description and Brief History of the Virus

The coronavirus disease 2019, now commonly shortened as COVID-19, refers to a highly infectious viral illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, the short form of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first incident of the disease was recorded in the Chinese city of Wuhan around December 2019. The disease has spread globally to all seven continents, affecting nearly 188 countries. On March 11, 2020, the WHO’s Director-General, Dr. Ghebreyesus Adhanom Tedros, declared COVID-19 a pandemic because the virus had spread to nearly 114 countries, infecting about 188,000 people and resulting in the death of 4,291 (WHO, 2020).

Image 1 below shows the structure of the coronavirus disease-2019 (CDC, 2020)

Coronavirus

Coronavirus

Distribution of the Virus Globally and in the US

COVID is one of the few pandemics in history that has spread to all corners of the world within a short time, paralyzing social events and the economies of most countries. As of June 23, 2020, the WHO estimates that the virus has infected nearly 8,993,659 people globally, killing 469,587, with America being the hardest hit with 4,437,946 cases and 224,207 deaths. According to the WHO’s (2020) Situation Report 155, America is closely followed by Europe (2,562,642 cases and 193,794 deaths), Eastern Mediterranean (933,052 cases and 18,534 deaths), South-East Asia (620,115 cases and 18,119 deaths), Africa (232, 215 cases and 5,117 deaths), and Western Pacific (206,948 cases and 7,340 deaths). In the U.S., about 2.3 million cases and nearly 120,000 deaths have been confirmed as of June 22, 2020 (Buchholz, 2020). New Jersey and New York states are leading with combined 557,000 cases.

Transmission of the Virus

The novel coronavirus disease is a highly infectious airborne condition that is transmitted when people stick close to each other and one breathes in minuscule droplets exhaled by a sick individual (whether asymptomatic or symptomatic). The common ways an infected individual can shed the droplets of the virus include talking, sneezing, coughing, and sneezing. The contaminated droplets can also fall on surfaces or floors and remain infectious for some time. A person can also get infected by touching these contaminated surfaces and then tapping or touching their mouth, nose, and eyes without disinfecting their hands with a sanitizer.

Symptoms, Clinical Presentation, and Complications of the Disease

Mild symptoms might appear between two and fourteen days after being exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen and may include cough, chills or fever, headache, fatigue, shortness of breath, sore throat, vomiting or nausea, runny nose or congestion, loss of smell/taste, body or muscle aches, as well as diarrhea. In severe situations, COVID-19 can result in pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, acute liver injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (CDC, 2020).

Diagnosis of the Virus

Because COVID-19 is a new disease, there are presently two recommended tests, including viral testing (which establishes the presence of a new viral infection) and antibody testing (which identifies the presence of the previous infection). According to the CDC (2020) report, even though the World Health Organization has so far published several viral testing standards, the most recommended is RRT-PCR (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Typically, respiratory samples are retrieved through a nasopharyngeal swab and taken to the laboratory for the RRT-PCR to identify the gene sequence of SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent). Sputum and blood samples can also be used.

Treatment and Prevention

Even though a drug or vaccine has not yet been developed for COVID-19, physicians and healthcare workers are advised to attempt to manage the symptoms of the disease to keep their patients alive, such as fever, shortness of breath, and so on. However, the CDC (2020) and other healthcare authorities highly recommend prevention as the best way of addressing the spread. Wearing gloves, social distancing, disinfecting and cleaning homes and workplaces, and using cloth face covers are some methods health authorities advise people and organizations to observe to stop the spread. However, according to Koch & Pong (2020), over 300 clinical trials are being carried out in different parts of the world, with repurposed antiviral drugs and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine being some of the latest approved therapies.

References

Buchholz, K. (2020, June 22). Confirmed COVID-19 cases in the U.S. Statista. https://www.statista.com/chart/20978/coronavirus-cases-us-map/

CDC. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Symptoms of coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html

Koch, S., & Pong, W. (2020). First up for COVID-19: nearly 30 clinical readouts before the end of April. BioCentury Inc. Retrieved from https://www.biocentury.com/article/304658

WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Situation report 155 – Data as received by WHO from national authorities by 10:00 CEST, June 23 2020. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200623-covid-19-sitrep-155.pdf?sfvrsn=ca01ebe_2

WHO. (2020). WHO director-general’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – March 11 2020. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19—11-march-2020

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Question 


Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Module 2 – Case

VIRUSES

Case Assignment

For this Case Assignment, you will discuss the importance of epidemiology to public health. Research one current example of a disease outbreak caused by a virus and how knowledge of its epidemiology can help health care professionals protect people from disease. (Hint: The CDC and WHO websites are excellent sources of information for this topic). You will present your chosen disease outbreak as an essay by addressing the topics below:

Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Case Viruses – Coronavirus

  • Name and describe the virus responsible for the outbreak. Briefly introduce your readers to the history of the disease outbreak. Provide an image of the virus and paste it within your Word document.
  • Where has the outbreak been found globally? Where has it been found in the United States? Describe the specific locations.
  • How is the virus transmitted to humans?
  • What are the symptoms of the disease? What does the clinical presentation look like in affected patients? What are the complications?
  • How is it diagnosed? What tests are used?
  • How is the disease treated? What preventive measures are being used locally or globally to control future outbreaks? What is the CDC doing to control the outbreak?
  • Include any additional interesting facts or figures about the disease outbreak or virus.

Assignment Expectations
Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, use descriptive subtitles such as Locations of Outbreak, Routes of Transmission, etc.

Your essay should be approximately 2–3 pages. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay, and use 1-inch margins, 12-point type and double spacing. Include a title page, an introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles, and a concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (e.g., Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay. A helpful guide to writing a quality essay can be found in Writing Tips. The Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper also provides links to example essays written within APA format.

Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Case Viruses – Coronavirus

Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example: (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit. Once you have completed your assignment within a Word document, please upload your final version to the Case 2 Dropbox. Please also note your Turnitin originality score and make revisions as needed. Please contact your instructor with any questions.

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