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Elizabeth Bugie Gregory Microbiologist

Elizabeth Bugie Gregory was an American microbiologist who discovered streptomycin antibiotics. It was the second medically tested antibiotic following penicillin. Further, the discovery of the drug made it possible to defeat mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eveleigh & Bennett, 2018). Gregory was a dedicated microbiologist whose work helped to provide safe antibiotics that could treat illnesses such as tuberculosis.

Accomplishments of Gregory

She studied antimicrobials that protected vegetation from Dutch elm conditions. Through her hard work, she successfully recognized streptomycin in the year 1944 and with the collaboration of her college, Waksman. The medicine was retrieved from different varieties of soil organisms. However, Gregory did not win the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1952 under the cultural influence that being married is more important (Eveleigh & Bennett, 2018). Thus, Selman Waksman took the appreciation award for the discovery. Later on, Waksman advocated for her involvement in the discovery of streptomycin, and consequently, she was awarded a fraction of royalties.

After her breakthrough discovery, Bugie continued with research work on micromonosporin, a glycoprotein element manufactured to act against gram-positive microorganisms. Later, Merck & Co. employed Bugie to assess pyrazinoic acid and penicillin antibiotics to cure mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eveleigh & Bennett, 2018). After raising her children, Bugie returned to her research studies and focused on library science. Her microbiology accomplishments made a substantial improvement in the field of medicine.

Branch of Microbiology Gregory Specialized in Her Work

The microbiologist specialized in bacteriology, particularly in the study of microbial cytology, which focuses on microscopic aspects of microorganisms. Bacteriology focuses on the study of genetics, morphology, ecology, and biochemistry of bacterial organisms. It also involves recognizing, categorizing, and characterizing bacteria organisms (Solotorovsky et al., 1949). Bugie applied this knowledge to study the microbial activity of different types of soil to understand nature and plant development. Ultimately, she managed to develop an antimicrobial activity of streptomycin that acts against tuberculosis.

Importance of Bacteriology Today

The study of bacteriology plays an essential part in the development of molecular biology and genetics. Today, scientists use this knowledge to identify discoveries in this branch, such as; the pollution from plastics on the environment adversely affects bacteria responsible for producing oxygen (Foster, 2014). As such, scientists today can identify human bacterial infections along with their etiology elements, and the research remains to evolve and, at times, emerge.

Current Researchers in the Field of Bacteriology

Stanley Falkow concentrated on researching how bacteria infect people with illnesses. He played a pivotal role in developing the knowledge of how microbes gain resistance to antibiotics. Ultimately, he won a Nobel Prize in 2008 during the Lasker-Koshland award for outstanding accomplishments in medicine (Amieva, 2018). Through his depth research and medical science contributions to bacteria, pathogenesis has developed the study of extrachromosomal features called plasmids and their participation in antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity in people and animals.

How Have Falkow’s Findings Impacted the Field of Microbiology and Medicine

Falkow’s inventions and new methods provided a pathway for scientists to understand how bacteria pass their characteristics to another organism. Furthermore, he pioneered the application of recombinant DNA technology and molecular techniques to offer insight into how bacterial survives and spreads (Falkow, 2008). Moreover, he made accomplishments in comprehending causative agents of different sicknesses such as diarrhea, sexually transmitted diseases, typhoid fever, whooping cough, and ulcers, among others. Through these achievements, he influenced significant advancements in public health and agricultural sectors (Medini et al., 2008). Falkow has shared his microbial knowledge through mentoring young researchers in the field of microbiology and immunology. Thus, enabling a deeper understanding of the impact of microbes on health, bridging the gap between basic sciences, and discovering medicine.


Amieva, M. R. (2018). Stanley Falkow (1934-2018). Nature558(7708), 190-191.

Eveleigh, D. E., & Bennett, J. W. (2018). Women Microbiologists at Rutgers in the Early Golden Age of Antibiotics. Women in Microbiology, 317-329.

Falkow, S. (2008). I never met a microbe I didn’t like. Nature medicine14(10), 1053-1057.

Foster, W. D. (2014). A history of medical bacteriology and immunology. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Medini, D., Serruto, D., Parkhill, J., Relman, D. A., Donati, C., Moxon, R., … & Rappuoli, R. (2008). Microbiology in the post-genomic era. Nature Reviews Microbiology6(6), 419-430.

Solotorovsky, M., Siegel, H., Bugie, E. J., & Gregory, F. J. (1949). The evaluation of antituberculous agents with avian tuberculosis in chicks: a comparison of dihydrostreptomycin and streptomycin. American review of tuberculosis60(3), 366-376.


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Module 1 – Case


Case Assignment

In this activity you will be researching a microbiologist who has made an important contribution to the study of microbiology. Then you will choose an area of microbiology to research and find out about the scientists who are carrying out that type of research today.

Choose one of the following microbiologists: David Baltimore, Robert Koch, Louis Pasteur, Elizabeth Bugie Gregory, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Walter Reed, or Margaret Pittman.

When researching your chosen area of microbiology, you may find to be a good resource.

In a 2- to 3-page essay, address the following questions:



  • Which microbiologist did you choose from the list above?
  • What are his/her most notable accomplishments?
  • What branch of microbiology did he/she specialize in (bacteriology, virology, protozoology, epidemiology, etc.)?
  • How is this branch of microbiology important in today’s world?
  • Find a current researcher (2000-today) conducting studies in this field of microbiology. What are his/her most notable findings?
  • How have these findings changed the field of microbiology and medicine?

Assignment Expectations

Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, use descriptive subtitles such as Introduction, Notable Accomplishments, Modern Day Importance of Virology, etc.



Your essay should be approximately 2–3 pages. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay, and use 1-inch margins, 12-point type and double spacing. Include a title page, an introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles, and a concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (e.g., Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay. A helpful guide to writing a quality essay can be found in Writing Tips. The Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper also provides links to example essays written within APA format.

Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example: (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit. Once you have completed your assignment within a Word document, please upload your final version to the Case 1 Dropbox. Please also note your Turnitin originality score and make revisions as needed. Please contact your instructor with any questions.

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