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Relationships and Expectations

Relationships and Expectations

Sample Answer 

Relationships and Expectations

Relationships and Expectations: PEN-3 Model in Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Youth

The PEN-3 cultural model comprises three domains: Cultural Identity, Relationships and Expectations, and Cultural Empowerment. The Relationship and Expectations domain has three components: perceptions, enablers, and nurturing. These components describe the attitudes and perceptions on the structural societal resources and the health problems (such as healthcare services) which discourage or promote effective health-seeking practices (perceptions), the influence that the kin and family have (enablers), in nurturing decisions that surround effective management for the examined heath or problems (nurturing). This dimension seeks to answer a number of questions, including where to intervene; where and who are the negative influencing places, people, and factors that have an impact on the ways of thinking, perceptions, and views of the target populations (in this case young adult engaged in alcohol and drug abuse); and who and where positive places, people, and factors which impact the ways of thinking; and making comparisons and contrasts on the conflicting messages that the family, neighborhood, community, places, people, home, and environment and family ties as regards alcohol and drug abuse among young adults.


This refers to the perceptions that young adults have as regards the effects and influence of alcohol and drug abuse on their health, their mind, body, and spirit. People use substances as they seek to satisfy the needs they have or to serve a function. The effects of drugs can help meet some specific needs, such as pain relief and pleasure, or through the drug’s symbolism, such as a feeling of belonging or a sense of rebellion. All decisions on substance abuse involve weighing costs versus the benefits as the individual perceives. Youths use drugs for similar reasons as adults do, heightening enjoyment and relieving stress. However, according to Nargiso, Ballard, and Skeer (2015), some reasons are linked to adolescent developmental reasons. Some of these reasons include the desire to take risks, demonstrate independence and autonomy, development of values that are separate from societal and parental authority, seeking exciting and new experiences, and signaling of entry into a peer group while satisfying curiosity.


The enablers include those supporting the recovery from and preventing the initiation of youth into alcohol and drug abuse because completely eradicating drug and alcohol abuse among the youth is unrealistic. Enablers include access to the right information, tools, resources, and education support; and encouragement toward healthy choices. Community readiness should be increased at this level even as they engage in action and prevention activities to reduce the use of harmful legal products. An effective community mobilization strategy is necessary for the implementation of a mutually supportive preventive approaches mix, that is, school and environment-based strategies. School-based youth education has a history of being an effective strategy in the reduction of youth use and abuse of alcohol and drugs, resulting in reduced use, and enhanced behavioral and cognitive skills, and the same can be replicated over and over again (Evans & Bosworth,1998). When the consumption of drugs is reduced, it will cause a decrease in negative consequences such as poor school performance and dropout rates, illegal activity, and the health risks linked to the use and abuse of drugs and alcohol.


This level encourages knowledge building and education from the right providers, people, and sources. It also includes encouraging spiritual leaders’ and church leaders’ participation. Some people develop drug and alcohol abuse addiction because of early use. When the brain is at the developmental stage, it is very susceptible to getting damaged by drugs that can be caused by abuse. When a person starts taking drugs at an early age, they can experience brain cell damage, and it becomes difficult for such a person to recover. The earlier a teen starts, the more dangerous it is to their health (Jiloha, 2017). Therefore, in this nurturing cultural level, pre-teens and teens should be given access to factual information on the damages that alcohol and drug abuse can bring, which should be done continuously.


Evans, A., & Bosworth, K. (1998). Building effective drug education programs. Phi Delta Kappa International.

Jiloha, R. C. (2017). Prevention, early intervention, and harm reduction of substance use in adolescents. Indian journal of psychiatry59(1), 111.

Nargiso, J. E., Ballard, E. L., & Skeer, M. R. (2015). A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with nonmedical use of prescription drugs among youth in the United States: a social-ecological perspective. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs76(1), 5-20.


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Relationships and Expectations

Continuing with the same cultural group and health issue for the Session Long Project that you began in Module 1, write a paper to address the following:

  • Describe the Relationships and Expectations of the group you chose. Specifically, address how each of the PEN-3 model’s three factors within the dimension of Relationships and Expectations applies to your group and provide examples.
  • Use subheadings to clearly show that you have addressed each of the three factors. Support your discussion with references from scholarly and professional references (not just your opinion).

    Relationships and Expectations

    Relationships and Expectations

Length: 2-3 pages (excluding the cover page and the reference list).

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