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Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

Sample Answer 

Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

Drinking and Drug Use Among Young Adults.

The project’s goal is to increase the awareness of young adults about the effects of drinking and drug use through mass media campaigns and group discussions. The learning objective of the project: At the end of the season-long project, 80% of young adults will be able to state and describe at least five negative consequences of drinking and drug use. The behavioral objective of the project: At the end of the season-long project, 75% of young adults will self-report having quit drinking and using drugs.

Various strategies are effective in reducing drinking and drug use among young adults. The first strategy is mass media campaigns. Mass media campaigns emphasize changing the norms about drug use. The campaigns demonstrate the negative consequences of drinking and drug use. Furthermore, the merits of not using drugs are highlighted. The campaigns provide changing opinions on the prevalence of drug use and give suggestions on how to resist drugs (Johnston et al., 2019). Media channels that can are used include billboards, television, radio, newspapers, and music videos. An example is the National Youth Anti-Drug Campaign of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (Zhao, 2020). Mass media campaigns also involve reducing pro-drug messages that are aired in media.

The other strategy is Community organizing and coalitions. This entails a collaborative effort between various community entities. Community strategies for substance use reduction are then developed. Representatives from different community agencies suggest the goals of reducing drug use. Collaborative strategies are then established to achieve the goals (Kolla et al., 2017). This is followed by the implementation of the strategies over several years. Such community organizations include Project Northland and Project STAR (Kolla et al., 2017). The community organizing groups are often grassroots in nature, and they empower community members other than professional staff.

The other strategy is Family training, counseling, and case management. It aims at changing family management practices. This leads to the promotion of parenting skills through training or instructions. Parents are taught skills for increasing emotional attachment. They are also taught to help their children develop skills and competencies to avoid substance use (Trudeau et al., 2017). Strengthening Families Program is an example. Such training usually targets high-risk adolescents and their families.

The other strategy is cognitive-behavioral modeling and modification. It focuses directly on changing behavior. Tracking of specific behaviors and behavioral goals is done over time. Feedback is used to change behavior, either by positive or negative reinforcement. Training the target population to modify their behavior can have significant effects on behavior. This is accomplished using different cognitive strategies. An example is teaching the target population to recognize the physiological cues witnessed in unwanted behavior (Perry et al., 2016). They rehearse the skill and learn how to stop rather than acting impulsively in similar situations. An example is Anger Coping Training.

The other strategy involves mentoring, tutoring, and the use of work studies. The strategy aims to reduce an individual’s predisposition to drug use. Mentoring entails the informal delivery of knowledge or psychosocial support that is relevant to the prevention of drug use (Johnston et al., 2019). Tutoring involves individualized support from a trained person. Unlike counseling, mentoring can be provided by a layperson and does not need a structured approach. The use of recreational, community services, and leisure activities can also be used to reduce drinking and drug use. These activities provide constructive and alternative fun-eliciting sources. They enable the target group to stay away from drugs. An example is Mid-night Basketball, which is very popular.

The other strategy involves the use of rehabilitation centers. This can take the form of long-term residential treatment or short-term residential treatment. Long-term residential treatments occur in a nonhospital setting. An example is the Therapeutic Community that has planned lengths of stay between 6 and 12 months (Trudeau et al., 2017). Addiction is viewed from the perspective of an individual’s social and psychological deficits. Treatment aims at creating personal accountability and responsibility.

Group counseling can also be used. It capitalizes on the social reinforcement provided by peer discussion. This helps to promote a drug-free life. Research has demonstrated that when group counseling is offered together with individualized counseling, positive outcomes are achieved (Perry et al., 2016). Group counseling can also be modified to reflect the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy.

The two evidence-based strategies that I will use to implement my program are mass media campaigns and group counseling. Mass media campaigns are essential because information reaches a large target group over a short time. Different avenues will be used, such as televisions, radios, billboards, and social media. All pro-drug messages will be stopped and the effects of drinking and drug use communicated. Group counseling is important because there is social reinforcement provided by peer discussion. This will be a good complement to mass media because group counseling enables face-to-face interaction with drug users.

Work plan.
Goal: To increase the awareness of young adults about the effects of drinking and drug use through mass media campaigns and group discussions.
Objectives. Strategies.
Learning objective of the project: At the end of the Season-long project, 80% of young adults will be able to state and describe at least five negative consequences of drinking and drug use. Mass media campaigns. The avenues that will be used include radio, television, billboards, and social media.
The behavioral objective of the project: At the end of the season-long project, 75% of young adults will self-report having quit drinking and using drugs.


Group counseling. It will involve the use of peer discussions. It is advantageous because it uses social reinforcement.


Johnston, L. D., Miech, R. A., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Patrick, M. E. (2019). Monitoring the Future: National survey results on drug use 1975-2018. 2018 Overview: Key findings on adolescent drug use. The National Institute on Drug Abuse at The National Institutes of Health, 1–104.

Kolla, G., Strike, C., Watson, T. M., Jairam, J., Fischer, B., & Bayoumi, A. M. (2017). Risk creating and risk reducing: Community perceptions of supervised consumption facilities for illicit drug use. Health, Risk and Society, 19(1–2), 91–111.

Perry, A. E., Woodhouse, R., Neilson, M., St James, M. M., Glanville, J., Hewitt, C., & Trépel, D. (2016). Are non-pharmacological interventions effective in reducing drug use and criminality? A systematic and meta-analytical review with an economic appraisal of these interventions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(10).

Trudeau, K. J., Black, R. A., Kamon, J. L., & Sussman, S. (2017). A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Relapse Prevention Program for Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment. Child and Youth Care Forum, 46(3), 437–454.

Zhao, X. (2020). Health communication campaigns: A brief introduction and call for dialogue. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 7, S11–S15.


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Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

By now, you have identified and done some literature search on your Module 1 Session Long Project (SLP) topic/health behavior and target population. In short, you have assessed the need for a program or intervention to address the health behavior you previously identified.

For Module 2 SLP, you will again conduct a literature search utilizing peer-reviewed journal articles, books, professional organization articles, etc., to help you identify evidence-based strategies to best address the health behavior in your target population and create a program/intervention plan.

Write a paper (3 pages in length) summarizing your findings on evidence-based strategies and a workplan to address the health behavior. A workplan sample can be found at

The following items will be assessed in particular:

  1. Using the same topic you have chosen from Module 1 SLP, develop a program goal and at least two objectives (1 learning objective and 1 behavioral objective) for your target population. Your objectives must be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-phased (SMART). Make sure that you have read the required readings on SMART objectives before developing your goal and objectives.
  2. Based on your literature search, provide a summary of evidence-based strategies that have been shown effective in promoting or reducing the behavior in your target population.
  3. Identify two evidence-based strategies that you will use to implement your program or intervention. Provide an explanation why you have chosen these strategies and defend your choices.
  4. For now, include a workplan table with your goals, objectives, and activities/strategies. NOTE: Other parts of the workplan such as the data measurement tools, timeframe, responsible person, and measures of success will be completed in the next module SLP.


Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Developing strategies for program success. Retrieved May 1, 2012 from…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Writing good goals [Evaluation Briefs No. 3a]. Retrieved from…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Writing SMART objectives [Evaluation Briefs No. 3b]. Retrieved from…

Fitzgerald, N. & Spaccarotella, K. (2009 February). Barriers to a healthy lifestyle: From individuals to public policy—an ecological perspective. Journal of Extension, 47(1), 1-9. Retrieved May 1, 2012 from…

Glasgow, R.E. (2008). Perceived barriers to self-management and preventive behaviors. Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement & Research. Rockville, MD: Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adolescent and School Health (2011). Workplan template. Program management. [Tools and resources]. Retrieved May 1, 2012 from….


review the required readings about developing good goals and SMART objectives. Your goal should be something that we can measure as well.

The assignment asks that you provide at least two SMART objectives (learning and behavioral) specific to your target population. Your objectives should be specific measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-phased.

Learning objectives should respond to what would you want your participants to learn from the program that you are implementing. For example: At the end of the educational program, 100% of participants will be able to name at least two negative consequences of teen pregnancy as to be measured by a program evaluation.

Behavioral objectives should respond to what behavior you want your participants to increase or decrease. For example: At the end 6-month period, 80% of participants will self-report having used contraception when engaging in sexual activities

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