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Experimental Designs

Experimental Designs

Sample Answer 

Experimental Designs

Part One

According to Keren (2014), between-subjects is an experimental design type where subjects are assigned to diverse conditions, each experiencing a single experimental condition. For example, when comparing two car rental sites by looking at how subjects book cars on the sites, the experiment would take two ways: between subjects or within subjects. The between-subjects could test only one site and book a car on that specific site. Within subjects, the participants test both sites and book a car on both.

Single-factor designs are the simplest and have one independent variable, two levels, and one dependent measure. An independent variable can be manipulated between two conditions in three general ways: qualitatively different conditions; differing magnitudes; and present/absent (Kline, 2013).  A multiple-group design compares 3 or more amounts or levels of an IV. A control group may be present, and 2 or more experimental groups. The participants are randomly selected in a randomized multiple-group design.

Matched groups refer to the research design techniques where participants in the group and those who are exposed to manipulation are compared to a variable outcome to a specific participant in the opposite and control group. The participant in the control group is similar to the counterpart but does not receive the manipulated variable.

The hallmark of the within-subject factor is that multiple levels of the factor are presented to the participants. Within-subject factors have greater statistical power than factors between subjects. This implies that factors within within-subjects are in a better position to detect a given effect. These have greater power because of the error variance that is smaller compared to the between subjects. The within-groups error variance is used in ANOVA tests and refers to these variations, which are a result of differences within the level or individual groups. In other words, not all the values are the same within each group (Keren, 2014). A significant advantage of this experimental design is that the participant pool should not necessarily be a large one. Additionally, a within-subject can aid in minimizing errors that are associated with the differences among individuals.

The foundation of single-subject design is that it is an intervention perceived to be successful, is known by the changes in the status of the subject. The research design has three components: the repeated phase, the baseline phase, and the treatment phase. The last two phases’ results are displayed in graphical form. The internal validity determines the causality findings. When repeated measures are taken in the baseline phase, a number of threats that can compromise internal validity are controlled. More specifically, challenges of testing, statistical regression, instrumentation, and maturation can be controlled through repeated measurement, and this is because of the illustrative patterns of the internal threats to internal validity that ought to appear on the baseline. When reconstruction of measurements at the baseline is done, the threats to internal validity become a challenge.

Part Two

In the preliminary study by Huang, Li, Huang, Qi, Shao, et al. (2020), the authors examined the link between smartphone use and poor sleep among Chines college students. This was a cross-sectional study within group multiple, factor experimental design. The participants were selected through cluster sampling, with all students who were invited to participate in the study agreeing to do so. Self-administered questionnaires were used for the data collection on demographics and psychosocial factors, mobile phone addiction, physical health, and smartphone use characteristics. The psychosocial factors that were measured were social support and deression.12 items of the UTI and which were deemed to be applicable to the study, were used in developing a scale of depressive symptoms because the symptoms were in line with the major depression symptomology as stated in the DSM-IV criteria. Two Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) subscales were used in assessing the social support level, and these are the utilization of social support and subjective social support. Physical health was evaluated through two questions: “During the past year, did you often suffer from headaches?” and “During the past year, did you often feel that you were in good physical health?” Those that answered ‘yes’ were grouped as having headaches or good physical healing. The variable related to the use of smartphones included the duration of mobile internet use and smartphone use (hours), per month smartphone charge (Yuan), MPA, and length of smartphone use (years). The Chinese Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) was used to assess the MPA, while the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep quality.

The result of the study showed that of the students that took part in the study, nearly one-tenth (9.8%) stated that they experienced poor sleep quality. Additionally, these poor qualities of sleep was associated with male students. Students who had poor physical health did not have good quality sleep. Further, the study showed that persons who had experienced poor-quality sleep were likely to experience headaches. Also, students with poor sleep quality tend to have depressive symptoms. The 9.8 percent also reported being smartphone users for more than 4 years. This group also stated that it spends more than five hours on their smartphones. Lastly, the same percentage of students had more severe ICC of mobile phone addiction

References

Huang, Q., Li, Y., Huang, S., Qi, J., Shao, T., Chen, X., … & Chen, H. (2020). Smartphone use and sleep quality in Chinese college students: a preliminary study. Frontiers in Psychiatry11.

Keren, G. (2014). Between-or within-subjects design: A methodological dilemma. A Handbook for Data Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences1, 257-272.

Kline, R. B. (2013). Single-factor designs.

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Question 


Experimental Designs

Researchers in psychology often use experimental designs to learn about behavior and other topics in the field. Experiments offer important benefits, such as control over extraneous variables, allowing researchers to determine how experimental factors affect behavior. There is a variety of experimental designs, and this assignment will help you to understand their features and limitations.

For this Assignment, you will write a 3–5 page paper on experimental research designs. Using the PG Library, you will also find and summarize a research article about a study employing an experimental design.
Be sure to address the following in your paper:

Experimental Designs

Experimental Designs

Part 1. Describe Experimental Designs

  • Describe major features and the role of error in between-subjects designs, including the following designs:
    • Single-factor randomized group designs
    • Randomized multi-group designs
    • Matched-group designs
  • Describe major features of and the role of error in within-subjects design.
    • Explain when it would be appropriate to use a within-subjects design.
  • Describe major features of and the role of error in single-subject designs.
Part 2. Summarize a Research Article Employing an Experimental Design
Using the PG Library, identify a research article in a peer-reviewed journal. Summarize the article, focusing on the design. Be sure to address the following:

  • Summarize the research topic and question.
  • Identify the specific experimental design the researchers applied.
  • Summarize the methodology, including participants, measures, and basic procedures.
  • Summarize the major findings of the study.

The Assignment should:

  • Utilize a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources outside of your textbook to support your paper.
  • Follow Assignment directions (review grading rubric for best results).
  • Use correct APA formatting per the current APA Publication Manual.
  • Demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard English.
  • Be written in Standard English and be clear, specific, and error-free.

Your paper should include:

  • Title Page
  • Main Body of the paper
  • Reference Page
  • 3-5 Pages in length

Submitting your Assignment
Put your Assignment in a Word document. Save it in a location that you will remember and with your full name along with the class number. When you are ready to submit it to the unit Dropbox. You should revisit the Dropbox to view any helpful feedback your instructor has left for you

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