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Illness and Disease Management 3

Illness and Disease Management 3

Sample Answer 

Illness and Disease Management 3

Healthy People 2020 Global Health Initiatives

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV is a virus that lowers the body’s immune response. The virus stays in the body for a lifetime, with the virus’s symptoms not having an acute onset. Even though HIV has no cure, the disease will progress in three stages over time if left without treatment. Acute HIV infection occurs two to four weeks after being exposed. The symptoms are fever, headache, sore throat, chills, fatigue, muscle pain, rashes, and swollen glands. The patient may sometimes present with no symptoms. If not treated, it will then progress to chronic HIV, and symptoms may vary in terms of severity depending on the infection’s progressive nature. Symptoms include coughing, breathing difficulties, loss of weight, diarrhea, fatigue, and high-grade fever. Some people in this stage have no symptoms. These symptoms can last up to ten years. The final stage of the disease is AIDS. The CD4 cell levels are below 200mm3. Symptoms include persistent high-grade fever, night sweats, chills, oral thrush, genital sores, severe fatigue, rashes, significant weight loss, memory issues, and pneumonia. After full-blown AIDs, the patient dies (Haber et al., 2017)

Goals for HIV

The Healthy People 2020 goals for HIV are to reduce the number of new HIV diagnoses, to reduce HIV infections, to reduce HIV transmission, and to reduce new AIDS cases in vulnerable populations (Heffernan et al., 2019)

Role of CDC

The role of the CDC in meeting these goals is diagnosing people as soon as possible, rapidly and effectively treating people living with HIV to achieve consistent viral suppression, preventing new HIV transmissions by encouraging the use of syringe services and PreP services, quickly responding to HIV outbreaks with the aim of giving treatment and preventive services to people (Lancet, 2020)


Haber, N., Tanser, F., Bor, J., Naidu, K., Mutevedzi, T., Herbst, K., … & Bärnighausen, T. (2017). From HIV infection to therapeutic response: a population-based longitudinal HIV cascade-of-care study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Lancet HIV4(5), e223-e230.

Heffernan, M., Fromknecht, C. Q., McGowan, A. K., Blakey, C., & Oppenheimer, C. C. (2019). Healthy People for the 21st century: understanding use of Healthy People 2020 as a web-based initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice25(2), 121-127.

Lancet, T. (2020). Reviving the US CDC. Lancet (London, England)395(10236), 1521.


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Illness and Disease Management 3

Review Healthy People 2020 Global Health Initiatives.

Illness and Disease Management 3

Illness and Disease Management 3

  1. Choose one disease process and discuss the disease process.
  2. Discuss the goals for this disease presented in Healthy People 2020.
  3. How does the CDC play a role in meeting the goals?

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