Need help with your Discussion

Get a timely done, PLAGIARISM-FREE paper
from our highly-qualified writers!


Health, Culture, and Identity

Health, Culture, and Identity

Sample Answer 

Health, Culture, and Identity

Diabetes Among African Americans

Researchers have established that African Americans are more likely to suffer and die from diabetes than Whites. Their increased chance is rated at 2.2 times, with Type 2 Diabetes being identified in 90 to 95 percent of the diagnoses. The risk factors include obesity, advanced age, genetics, impaired metabolism of glucose, lack of physical activity, and race (Purcell & Cutchen, 2013). At least 18.7 percent of African Americans suffer from the condition, while only 10.2 percent of whites are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors such as poverty, lack of sufficient education, and lack of access to health insurance are considered responsible for the rising cases. African Americans living in rural areas are more exposed to the condition due to a lack of financial resources to purchase the drugs. The change in diet and culture are also responsible for the high prevalence. The perception that exceeding the recommended body weight symbolizes wealth also heightens the condition’s prevalence.

Patients suffering from diabetes can have acute or chronic complications. Acute complications include high or low blood sugar, Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State, which is life-threatening and results from extreme dehydration, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Chronic complications include retinopathy, foot problems, stroke, heart attack, nephropathy, neuropathy, other chronic conditions such as cancer, and sexual problems among men and women alike. Different patients exhibit different complications depending on the stage, accessibility to medication, and acuteness of the condition (The British Diabetic Association, 2020).

Cultural Identity of the Population

PEN-3 model proposes three domains that address the cultural and social contexts that are related to people’s health. The model lists three main categories; cultural identity, relationships and expectations, and cultural empowerment. Cultural identity has three main aspects; the person, extended family, and neighborhood. Each of these affects an individual’s relationship with diabetes. Culture is often defined as beliefs and people’s ways of life and is learned through socialization. Culture has an influence on dietary habits, illnesses, and health (Purcell & Cutchen, 2013).


Religion is one of the cultural aspects that is identified as a critical cultural aspect among African Americans. Diabetes patients rely on God for strength, especially during management. They draw strength as well as resources from the supernatural being. Unfortunately, some individuals may fail to seek medical attention and rely upon their hopeful prayers. This approach tends to result in further complications as the condition worsens. African Americans also believe that diabetes is caused by excessive consumption of sugar. Thus, most individuals tend to reduce their sugar consumption to avoid the occurrence of diabetes. Failure to understand the actual cause of diabetes tends to mislead the population on prevention and management tactics (Purcell & Cutchen, 2013).

Extended Family

The other misconception is that the condition is hereditary. While genes tend to predispose individuals to the condition, lifestyle also plays an important role in occurrence. To manage the condition or avoid triggers that could lead to diabetes, various traditional practices such as taking herbal teas, using herbal medicines, and consuming tea leaves, vinegar, lemon juice, and aloe vera are common. In addition, the perception that poor self-care is a potential cause has also been found to hold cultural ground. Luckily the family is very instrumental in offering care and direct assistance (Purcell & Cutchen, 2013).


The common belief is that God punishes using conditions such as diabetes. Thus, feelings of hopelessness tend to manifest, especially when prayers for better health remain ineffective. This desperation affects the population’s ability to manage the condition (Purcell & Cutchen, 2013).


Culture is a significant influencer of diabetic patients’ diagnosis, treatment, and management. The individuals’ socialization affects their relationship with the disease. Culture, at times, interferes with the ability to understand the actual cause of diabetes. Religion affects a person’s and the community’s perception of the disease. Some individuals exhibit worsening conditions because they believe God would heal them. These aspects make it difficult for healthcare providers to obtain positive health outcomes. Healthcare providers are compelled to be culturally competent in order to provide effective care. Failure to be culturally competent interferes with their ability to offer care to the diverse patient population and have the desired outcomes. The healthcare workers are tasked with the responsibility of creating awareness among different cultural groups regarding conditions such as diabetes. This should improve care delivery, reduce prevalence and incidences, and increase the rate of positive health outcomes. In addition, healthcare workers’ cultural competence and ability to communicate effectively directly affect their interactions with varied patient populations. Regarding communication, nurses and other healthcare providers should seek to understand the patient’s cultural background and fulfill the 4Cs of culture (call, cause, cope, and concern) (Case Studies, 2019). The ability to fulfill these propels the likelihood of better care and management. Thus, culture has a significant bearing, not only on African Americans but also on other populations’ health


Case Studies. (2019). Retrieved from Understanding Cultural Diversity in Healthcare:

Purcell, N., & Cutchen, L. (2013). Diabetes self-management education for African Americans: Using the PEN-3 model to assess needs. American Journal of Health Education,, 44(4), 203-212.

The British Diabetic Association. (2020). Complications of diabetes. Retrieved from Diabetes UK:


We’ll write everything from scratch


Health, Culture, and Identity

Read the following articles, which can be accessed in the Trident library:

  1. Purcell, N., & Cutchen, L. (2013). Diabetes self-management education for African Americans: Using the PEN-3 model to assess needs. American Journal of Health Education, 44(4), 203-212. (chosen article)
  2. Lindberg, N. M., Stevens, V. J., & Halperin, R. O. (2013). Weight-loss interventions for Hispanic populations: The role of culture. Journal of Obesity, 2013, 542736.

Choose ONE of the articles’ topics to focus on for the rest of the SLP. You will use the information in the selected publication as you go through the phases of applying the PEN-3 model to develop a hypothetical health education program.

Health, Culture, and Identity

Health, Culture, and Identity

Write a three-page paper that includes the following:

  1. Provide a brief overview of the health issue among the population in the article selected above, statistics about the scope of the problem, and its implications for health.
    • You may consider selecting one of the Module readings:
      • Whembolua, Conserve & Tshiswaka, 2015: Selected population is African Americans, and the Health issue is Diabetes; or
      • Shahbazi, Ghofranipour, Amiri & Rajab, 2018: Selected Population is Hispanics, and the Health issue is Obesity.
  2. Describe the Cultural Identity of the population. Specifically address how each of the PEN-3 model’s three factors within Cultural Identity applies to the chosen population and provide examples. Use subheadings to clearly show that you have addressed each of the three factors. For instance, for the Whembolua, Conserve & Tshiswaka, 2015 article:
    • Person – Describe cultural values, beliefs, attitudes unique to African Americans and how these individual characteristics relate to individual health seeking behavior
    • Extended Family – Describe the role of the extended family in health decision making, cultural beliefs on health and illnesses etc.
    • Neighborhood – Describe the role of community influence on health behaviors, community support structures, if any etc.
    • Support your discussion with references from scholarly and professional references (not just your opinion).
  3. Reflect on the required readings, the article you choose for this assignment, and your own beliefs. Then, briefly describe how culture influences health care and what you learned that could help you effectively interact with diverse cultures in the health care setting.

Length: 3 pages, excluding the cover page and the reference list.

Have a similar assignment? "Place an order for your assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you A results."

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Eminence Papers only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Eminence Papers are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Eminence Papers are known for the timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Eminence Papers, we have put in place a team of experts who answer all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.

We Can Write It for You! Enjoy 20% OFF on This Order. Use Code SAVE20

Stuck with your Assignment?

Enjoy 20% OFF Today
Use code SAVE20