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From Leading Causes Of Death To Leading Health Indicators

From Leading Causes Of Death To Leading Health Indicators

Sample Answer 

From Leading Causes Of Death To Leading Health Indicators

For this assignment, I chose Arizona. Arizona’s top five leading causes of death are heart disease, malignant neoplasms, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, and cerebrovascular disease. These causes are almost similar to the top five leading causes of death in the United States since heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, and unintentional injury are the leading causes of death in the United States.

Even though heart disease is the leading cause of death in Arizona, unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among individuals aged between 1 year and 44 years. Besides, there are variations between the overall leading causes of death in Arizona from the leading causes of death among American Indians and Alaska Natives only. As per the data, diabetes mellitus and liver disease are among the top five leading causes of death among the American Indians and Alaska Natives in Arizona. The data also indicates that malignant neoplasms and heart disease are the leading causes of death among Asian/Pacific Islanders and Whites who are aged above 45 years.

Overall, the leading causes of death among individuals aged above 45 years, regardless of gender or race, are malignant neoplasms and heart disease. For those aged below 45 years, the leading cause of death regardless of their gender or race, is unintentional injury. The data also shows that individuals aged above 45 years are least likely to die due to unintentional injury. Therefore, health promotional practices should target the leading causes of death, such as malignant neoplasms, heart disease, and unintentional injury.

The three determinants of health I would choose as priorities for health promotion programs in Arizona are policymaking, health services, and social factors. Policies at the federal, local, or state level affect the health of individuals. The health of individuals can be improved by policies such as increasing taxes on drugs that are commonly abused, such as tobacco. Increasing taxes on tobacco would also lead to reduced smoking, preventing the effects associated with tobacco smoking (Zhang & Zheng, 2020). However, this can also negatively affect the health of individuals since it would lead to the development of withdrawal symptoms.

Access to quality health services also affects the health of individuals. Emergency services are vital in any healthcare system. Emergency services help in preventing deaths that may occur due to unintentional injuries. This promotes the well-being of the injured victims. However, limited or lack of access to health services by individuals can negatively affect one’s health. For instance, individuals are less likely to participate in preventive care programs when they do not have health insurance (Bhatt & Bathija, 2018). Barriers to access to health services also include language barriers, high cost, and lack of availability. These barriers can lead to the inability to get preventive services and delays in receiving appropriate healthcare.

Several social factors also play a role in determining the health of individuals. Examples of social factors that affect the health of people include transportation options, socioeconomic conditions, social norms and attitudes, exposure to emerging technologies, and availability of resources. These social factors can both positively and negatively affect the well-being of an individual. For instance, the availability of resources, such as money and food,, promotes individuals’ well-being. However, exposure to mass media has been found to affect people’s mental health (Opsenica-Kostic & Panic, 2017). Therefore, social factors affect the well-being of people in different ways.


Bhatt, J., & Bathija, P. (2018). Ensuring access to quality health care in vulnerable communities. Academic Medicine, 93(9), 1271–1275.

Opsenica-Kostic, J., & Panic, T. (2017). Internet and mental health of adolescents. University of Nis, 473, 197–216.

Zhang, Z., & Zheng, R. (2020). The impact of cigarette excise tax increases on regular drinking behavior: Evidence from China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 1–12.


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From Leading Causes Of Death To Leading Health Indicators

Module 2 – Case
Assignment Overview
You have just been hired by your State’s health department to help develop a health promotion program. Your first assignment is to use the CDC database, WISQARS Leading Causes of Death Reports, to find out what the leading causes of death in your State are, and how different groups within your State compare to those of the State as a whole. You will use that information to decide which determinants of health your program should focus on.

From Leading Causes Of Death To Leading Health Indicators

From Leading Causes Of Death To Leading Health Indicators

Case Assignment
Go to, and select “Leading Causes of Death 1999 to 2018 (ICD-10), National, Regional and State (Restricted).”
For Report Options, select your State.
Scroll down to “Advanced Options” and select “Top 5” as the number of causes.
Look at the column on the right, labeled All Deaths, to find the top 5 causes of death.
Repeat those steps, but select Race, Sex, and specific Age groups on the Report Options to see how/if the leading causes of death vary among differing demographic groups.
In an essay, please answer the following:

  • What state did you select?
  • What are the 5 leading causes of death in your State? How do they compare with the 5 leading causes of death in the US?
  • Describe how/if the leading causes of death vary based on different demographic variables such as race, sex, and age. Be specific about which variables you looked at.
  • Based on the findings for your state, what 3 determinants of health would you choose as priorities for health promotion programs? Would you focus your efforts on any specific one?
  • Please explain how those 3 determinants of health affect people’s behaviors in ways that promote well-being. How do they affect people’s behaviors in ways that hinder well-being? Give examples and support your statements with references.

Assignment Expectations
Length: 2 pages

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