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Pre-vaccination Education Increases Influenza Vaccination Rate

Pre-vaccination Education Increases Influenza Vaccination Rate

Sample Answer 

Pre-vaccination Education Increases Influenza Vaccination Rate

Abstract

The influenza virus is a common type of viral disease that can be fatal in high-risk populations, including pregnant women, older adults, young children, and those with compromised immune systems. This illness can cause congestion, cough, chills, fatigue, fever, and headaches by attacking the throat, nose, and lungs. Studies have shown that the elderly are the most vulnerable, and vaccine acceptance among this population is low, even though it is an effective measure to contain it. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if implementing pre-vaccination counseling will result in increased acceptance rates of the influenza vaccine in adults >65 years in a primary care practice. A total of 30 (15 for the treatment and 15 for the control) participants (aged ≤65) were randomly selected. For survey one, a 10-question survey questionnaire was given to all participants, asking about their attitude and knowledge regarding Flu vaccination. In the second survey, the experimental group was given educated about the flu vaccine, while the control group was not trained. A similar 10-question questionnaire was again administered. For the results, 73.3% (11 people) of the respondents in the experimental group said they were very likely to take the flu shot, compared to just 46.6% (7 people) of the control group. This outcome confirms that pre-training and education can improve the willingness of older people to take flu shots. However, with a p-value of 0.5, it is evident that the results are not statistically significant, meaning that more research needs to be done and variables narrowed down.

Discussion

Influenza, frequently referred to as flu, is a viral illness caused by the influenza virus. The signs of the disease can range from severe to mild and include fatigue, joint and muscle pain, fever, cough, sore throat, running nose, chills, and headache. Even though the disease can affect all types of populations, it is more fatal in high-risk groups, including pregnant women, older adults, young children, and those with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV or immune diseases. Research has shown that older adults (above 65 years) are at a greater risk of contracting the illness, experiencing severe symptoms, and also dying from the disease than any other population. Nonetheless, studies of the literature review have shown that flu shots (influenza vaccination) can assist in shielding the elderly from the disease, giving them the needed immunity. However, achieving maximum vaccination rates has been problematic because of non-compliance, including a lack of knowledge, awareness, and education among this population, despite research showing it can improve flu vaccination outcomes. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that implementing pre-vaccination counseling will result in increased acceptance rates of the influenza vaccine in adults >65 years in a primary care practice. Pre-counseling was also expected to boost knowledge and awareness of the flu vaccine, causing a possible upsurge in acceptance rates.

Notably, this study confirmed that education and counseling of older adults increased their chances of taking up the influenza vaccination. There was a significant change in the experimental group, in which participants were given an information sheet and allowed to watch videos that educated them about influenza vaccination. In the first survey, when the main question (How likely are you to get the flu shot this year?) was posed, many subjects were unwilling to take it in both groups. For the experimental group, 33.3% said they were very likely, 20% somewhat likely, 26.7% not sure, 13.3% somewhat unlikely, and 6.7% not likely. Similarly, for the control group, 26.7% said they are very likely, 13.3% somewhat likely, 33.3% not sure, 20% somewhat unlikely, and also 6.7% not likely. In survey two, after the same participants were counseled and enlightened, more people indicated being ready to take the flu shot. For example, 73.3% (11 people) of the respondents said they were very likely to accept the vaccine, compared to just 46.6% (7 people) of the control group. Also, in the experimental group, 20% indicated they were somewhat likely, and 6.7% were not sure. No one was somewhat unlikely and not likely. For the control group, 20%, 26.7%, and 6.7% said they were somewhat likely, not sure, and somewhat unlikely. No one indicated that they were not likely to accept the flu shot.

More so, the results demonstrated that pre-counseling substantially boosted the literacy levels of participants. For example, there were significant improvements for the experimental group as regards questions three (Do you think the Flu shot completely prevents the Flu?) and question four (Do you think the Flu shot causes the Flu?). For example, for the former, an incredible 80% said they completely agree, with 20% saying it somewhat prevents. No one said it does not prevent or is not sure. Similarly, for the latter, about 86.7% of the respondents denied that the flu shot never causes flu, and 13.3% said they were not sure. Nobody accepted that it causes the disease or it sometimes causes. These outcomes also extended to question five, five (how would you rate your knowledge of the flu shot?), with participants in the experimental/treatment group scoring high (excellent 60%, good 20%, fair 13.3%, poor 6.7%, and I know nothing 0%).

The opposite can be said for the control group, with respondents showing no significant change in the first survey responses. For example, for question three, 46.7% of the control group participants said they completely agree that the flu shot can prevent influenza, with 20% and 26.7% saying it somewhat prevents and does not prevent, respectively. No response was also recorded for the last option. These responses are not significantly different from the answers this group gave during the first survey, and the trend is similar for questions four and five. For example, for question four, 13.3% still said the flu shot causes flu, 20% agreed that it sometimes causes, 60% alleged it never causes, and 6.6% were not sure. For question five, (how would you rate your knowledge of the flu shot?), the responses were as follows: excellent 6.7%, good 13.3%, fair 40%, poor 33.3%, and I know nothing 6.7%. This just demonstrated how unknowledgeable the control group was about the flu shot compared to the experimental group.

These findings are consistent with what other researchers have found. For example, in their research, Gazibara et al. (2019) discovered that increasing counseling and awareness among those aged 65 years and above would improve vaccine acceptance. They proposed that health services and facilities, including those provided in primary care offices, would achieve greater benefits by establishing programs that can give patients accurate, evidence-based information to identify and change existing misconceptions, doubt, and confusion. Therefore, the findings of this research approve the potential for pre-vaccination counseling to improve influenza vaccination rates among older adults.

This study has also proved another key point – patients who have taken flu shots in the past have a higher acceptance rate of the flu shots in the future than those that have not previously taken the vaccine. For example, participants in the experimental group (Yes 26.7%, No 73.3%) reportedly indicated taking the flu shot in the future more than those in the control group (Yes 20%, No 80%). This fact has been previously documented by researchers Gazibara et al. (2019), who found that respondents who had received prior flu shots before the influenza seasons kicked in exhibited an essentially higher level of flu-related knowledge compared to those who had never received the vaccine. They also discovered that the highest percentage of reasons respondents did not accept the flu shot was associated with the perspective that “staying healthy substituted the need for vaccination.”

Therefore, the benefit of this study stems from the fact that it is comparative because it managed to identify the existing relationship between pre-counseling/pre-education and vaccination acceptance rates. Comparing the treatment or experimental group (which was given counseling) and the control group (which did not get any training) directly means that the research team was able to make a causal inference. The fact that the study is a controlled trial also makes it a more reliable source of information for health decision-makers and stakeholders because of the validity of the data. Most importantly, randomizing the study population and data collection significantly reduced bias, making the results more credible.

In conclusion, although the study demonstrated the relationship between prior counseling and the decision to take flu shots among older adults, several factors still limited the research. The first limitation is that other confounding factors, including previous flu shots and past counseling, could have influenced the results of the study. Both the experimental and control groups indicated during the first session/survey that they had previously received counseling and an influenza shot. Previous research should only select participants who have never received any counseling or vaccine. This could be the possible reason the p-value was 0.5 and statistically insignificant. Another setback is that the sample size was small (15 for each group), and the results cannot be sufficiently used to make inferences. Therefore, future studies should consider using a larger sample size. However, this study is still an important resource for decision-makers as it can stimulate behavioral change, especially when it comes to influencing the vulnerable elderly population to accept vaccination.

Reference

Gazibara, T., Kovacevic, N., Kisic-Tepavcevic, D., Nurkovic, S., Kurtagic, I., Gazibara, T., & Pekmezovic, T. (2019). Flu vaccination among older persons: a study of knowledge and practices. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 38(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41043-018-0159-8

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Question 


Pre-vaccination Education Increases Influenza Vaccination Rate

I need to write the Abstract and Discussion sections for this topic.

Pre-vaccination Education Increases Influenza Vaccination Rate

Pre-vaccination Education Increases Influenza Vaccination Rate

University level; 5 double spaced pages. It should be based on the Literature Review, Introduction and Methods parts which I have already written. I attached the Rubrics with grades as well. Thank you!

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