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Bioremediation

Bioremediation

Sample Answer 

Bioremediation

With the increase in industrialization all over the world, various pollutants are released into the environment (heavy metals, organic pollutants, organic solvents, petroleum waste, etc.), affecting the fertility of the soil and the health of animals and humans within the environment. Several strategies have been implemented to remove the pollutants from the environment that mainly employ the use of chemicals to treat the contaminants. However, recent results show the effectiveness of fungi in removing the pollutants within the environment through a process known as bioremediation that is cheap, practical, and friendly to the environment (Radhika Deshmukh, 2016). One commonly used fungi are the white-rot fungus with the scientific name Phanerochaete chyrsosporium (Cookson, 1995).

The fungus produces enzymes named lignin peroxidases that have significant biodegradative properties, which allow for the proper degradation of various pollutants within the environment. The fungus is, in most cases, classified according to the type of wood decay; however, the taxonomic classification of the fungus is Eumycota division, Basidiomycotina subdivision, Hymenomycetes for the class, whereas Holobasidiomyceti- dae as the subclass (JR., 1998). The soil is the typical environment for the fungus, with an increase in the moisture content being the main growth trigger for the fungus.

There are various benefits of using white-rot fungus in the bioremediation process since it has significant biodegradative properties, which allow the fungus to degrade a wide variety of pollutants. One of the primary benefits is that mycoremediation offers a cheap and effective way of handling waste within the environment with minimal effects on the environment compared to the use of chemicals. The benefit is attributed to the easy access to the fungi readily found all over our environment. Also, bioremediation produces by-products that are edible and with some medicinal properties ( laccase enzyme and medicinal mushroom), thus significantly impacting the lives of the people within a given environment (Samajdar, 2018). However, despite the benefits, there are several limitations to using white-rot fungus, mainly due to the sensitivity of the fungus to other biological processes. For example, mixing action adversely affects enzyme induction, thus affecting the efficiency of the fungus. High concentrations in the pollutant, competition from indigenous microbes, and chemical sorption also affect the ability of fungi in the bioremediation process.

Lastly, the white-rot fungus has undergone several genetic modifications that increase its efficiency in the bioremediation process. One of the changes is the biological pretreatment of the fungus, increasing the enzymatic digestibility of the fungus, thus ensuring the effectiveness of white-rot fungus during mycoremediation.

References

Cookson, J. T. (1995). Bioremediation Engineering: Design and Application. New York: McGraw Hill.

JR., H. H. (1998). Taxonomy of Industrially Important White-Rot Fungi. FPL. Retrieved from: https://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf1998/burds98a.pdf

Radhika Deshmukh, A. A. (2016). Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 247–264.

Samajdar, A. (2018). Bioremediation using Fungi – Mycoremediation. Envibrary. Retrieved from: https://envibrary.com/bioremediation-using-fungi-mycoremediation/

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Question 


Bioremediation

Bioremediation is the use of organisms like bacteria, Archea or fungi to metabolize pollutants. Instead of simply collecting the pollutant, bioremediation relies on living organisms to consume and break down the compound, turning it into a natural, harmless product. This technique is often used to help clean up major oil spills. Watch the following video and read the article link on fungi to learn more:

  • National Geographic. (2015, May 7). Oil-eating bacteria could be a solution to spill cleanups [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/sPgLJrk0sGQ
  • Perry, W. (2012). Can fungi clean up a Superfund site? Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/20573-fungal-cleanup-newtown-creek.html

Research a microbe or fungi that can be used in bioremediation and address the following questions in essay format:

Bioremediation

Bioremediation

  1. Provide the scientific name and identification of the bacteria or fungi you chose that can be used in bioremediation. How is it classified? What is its normal environment? Give a brief description of the bacteria or fungi.
  2. Is there a benefit to using either bacteria or fungi in bioremediation efforts? If so, Why?
  3. How are bacteria or fungi being genetically modified to improve bioremediation?
  4. What are some limitations to using bacteria or fungi for bioremediation?

Assignment Expectations

Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, use descriptive subtitles such as Introduction, Fungi in Bioremediation, etc.

Your essay should be approximately 1½–2 pages. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay, and use 1-inch margins, 12-point type and double spacing. Include a title page, an introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles, and a concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (e.g., Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay. A helpful guide to writing a quality essay can be found in Writing Tips. The Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper also provides links to example essays written within APA format.

Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example: (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit. Once you have completed your assignment within a Word document, please upload your final version to the Case 4 Dropbox. Please also note your Turnitin originality score and make revisions as needed. Please contact your instructor with any questions.

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