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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Sample Answer 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Introduction of the Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, commonly shortened as COPD, is one of the primary lung diseases associated with poor airflow and other breathing problems (Qureshi, Sharafkhaneh, & Hanania, 2014). COPD is fundamentally typified by the production of sputum, coughing, and shortness of breath. As a progressive illness, patients suffering from the disease tend to face difficulty with normal daily activities as the condition worsens, including dressing up and walking. The two common types of COPD are emphysema (characterized by the collapse of alveolar and lobules) and chronic bronchitis (exemplified by inflation of bronchial tubes and excessive production of mucus). The prevalence rates of COPD indicate that the disease affected more than 251 people in 2015 on a global scale (WHO, 2017). It was also estimated that the condition caused nearly 3.17 million mortalities in 2015, which is approximately 5 percent of all deaths reported throughout the year. More than 90 percent of these deaths were reported in middle-and-low income nations.

Etiology and Risk Factors

The primary cause of COPD is smoking, with regular smokers being reported to possess a higher probability of contracting the disease (Qureshi, Sharafkhaneh, & Hanania, 2014). However, not all smokers usually get COPD. Sometimes, but in very rare instances, nonsmokers without the alpha-1-antitrypsin protein can get emphysema, a type of COPD characterized by the slow destruction of lung tissue, especially the damage and thinning of the air sacs and alveoli. Exposure to certain risk factors can also increase the chance of getting COPD. This includes exposure to large levels of secondhand pollutants and smoke, exposure to particular toxic fumes or gases in the workplace, as well as repeated use of cooking fire at home, especially in buildings lacking adequate ventilation.


Qureshi, H., Sharafkhaneh, A., & Hanania, N. A. (2014). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: latest evidence and clinical implications. Therapeutic Advances Chronic Disease, 5(5), 212-227. Retrieved from

WHO. (2017). Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Retrieved from


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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Introduction of disease ‐ 20 points

  • One paragraph (approximately 200 words)

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Includes disease description
  • Includes epidemiology of disease (not patho)

Etiology and risk factors ‐ 20 points

  • Common causes of the disease or condition
  • Risk factors for the disease or condition
  • Impact of age
  • Prevalence based on gender,
  • Influence of environment
  • Genetic basis of disease
  • Lifestyle influences
  • All information supported by current literature


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Pathophysiological processes
  • Diagnostics

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