Need help with your Discussion

Get a timely done, PLAGIARISM-FREE paper
from our highly-qualified writers!

glass
pen
clip
papers
heaphones

Research Article Appraisal

Research Article Appraisal

Sample Answer 

Research Article Appraisal

PART 1. SPECIFYING SOCIAL WORK DILEMMAS

(10POINTS TOTAL)

  1. Introduction
  2. Briefly describe the social work practice problem being addressed. As part of your description, summarize what the scientific literature reveals in terms of the scope and impact of the practice problem offenses, the population affected, and relevant cultural and contextual factors. Include scholarly references and primary source statistics, not personal observations or experiences. (5 POINTS)
The social work problem being addressed is the potential of using a structured-based afterschool recreation program to lower delinquent youth behavior. Studies indicate that in recent years, the increase, demand, and popularity of private and federal sponsorship/funding for afterschool programs have created more afterschool programs. These programs are mainly intended to decrease the risk, avert adverse outcomes, as well as enhance youth functioning. These programs can play an important role in addressing behavioral problems, academic achievement, as well as school attendance and engagement (Kremer, 2015). One of the major impacts of these afterschool recreation programs is to lower crime and delinquent youth behavior by providing appropriate structures that can assist in averting some of the community’s ills, such as bridging the academic achievement gap, substance use, crime, and other academic and behavioral shortcomings, especially for ethnic/racial minorities as well as those from impoverished families. According to Roth, Malone, & Brooks-Gunn (2010), the federal funding of these afterschool projects between 1998 and 2004 increased to approximately $1 billion from $40 million, primarily because of the introduction of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act.

Several studies have also demonstrated a steady rise in adolescent delinquency rates in recent years. For example, it is estimated that approximately 900,000 delinquency cases were filed in the U.S. Juvenile courts in 2017 alone, largely involving property offenses (32%) and personal offenses (29%). Also, roughly a third of these cases entailed either larceny-theft or simple assault crime. Even though the rate of offending was high and similar across all the juvenile age groups, a majority of the offenders were aged between 13 and 14 years, as well as 15-16 years. With regard to racial representation, 43% of the juvenile offenders were from the white community, while 36% belonged to the African American racial group. Hispanics represented 19% of the cases.

  1. Next, specify ONEEFFECTIVENESSPRACTICE question that relates directly to the practice problem and population you have identified. Unless approved otherwise by your instructor, the practice question you specify should be the question that you addressed in Assignment2. Your effectiveness practice question should be formatted using the PICO framework and include each of the PICO components. (5 POINTS)
Among delinquent youth (P), can exposure to a structured personal skill-based afterschool recreation program (I) result in a greater reduction in delinquent behaviors (O) as opposed to non-exposure to such a program (O)?

PART 2. LOCATING RELEVANT EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ARTICLES AND EVIDENCE

(20 Points Total)

1.Approach and Results of Search (10POINTS)

  1. Briefly describe the approach that you used to search the scientific literature for empirical research articles to help you answer the specified practice question. At a minimum, your description should include or address the following: (1) scientific databases and search engines used; (2) PICO keywords used; (3) how evidence/research hierarchies were used to guide your search; and (4) criteria used to determine which articles would be reviewed. Your description should include the rationale for the concepts and strategies addressed in this course. It also should be detailed enough that it can be understood, critiqued and replicated by others to yield the same results that you obtained. (5 POINTS)
The articles used were searched in four major search engines and scientific databases (Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, PubMed, and NCBI) using different PICO key search words, such as “benefits of exposure to skilled-based afterschool recreation program in reducing delinquency” and “can exposure to youth afterschool youth programs lower delinquent behaviors.” Ten articles were selected based on their relevance to the PICO question. For inclusion, all the articles were required to be published in a peer-reviewed journal within ten years. The following inclusion criteria were observed (a) the article should be published in a scholarly journal (b) it should describe an original research study, meaning that it cannot be a meta-analysis, systematic review, summary review, or secondary data analysis (c) should not be more than ten years old. Also, the journal’s impact factors were considered. Original studies (especially controlled trials) were ranked first based on their journal impact factor and their relevance to the PICO keywords. Articles were ranked based on how closely they observed all these three factors.
  1. Briefly describe any limitations of the approach to the search and consequences of these limitations with respect to being able to use empirical research to address your practice question adequately. For example: “I did not use PICO keywords to conduct my search because….” “I did not review the articles with the highest Impact Factors… because.” Note that you are asked to describe limitations of YOUR approach, not limitations of the existing knowledgebase. (5 POINTS)
I did not use the PICO keywords to search all the articles because of a lack of empirical evidence-based articles on the subject in the past ten years. Also, I did not rank the articles primarily based on their impact journal factor because a majority were not original empirical studies.
  1. Hierarchy of Evidence (10 POINTS)
  2. Using the table template below, summarize 10 publicationsprovidingempirical evidence for addressing your effectiveness practice question. Your table should place the publication offering the highest level of evidence at the top of the hierarchy and the one offering the lowest level of evidence at the bottom. For each publication, include the following information:
  • Full reference (not in-text citation) using APA format;
  • Impact Factor for the journal and year in which the article was published;
  • Keywords used in the search that correspond with each of the PICO components; and
  • Type of evidence offered in the article (e.g., meta-analysis, systematic review, RCT, correlational study, case study, qualitative study, etc.

Hierarchy of Evidence Table

  Full Citation (using APA formating) Journal Impact Factor Key Words Used Type of Evidence
1. Zimmerman, M. A., Eisman, A. B., Reischl, T. M., Morrel-Samuels, S., Stoddard, S., Miller, A. L., & Rupp, L. (2018). Youth empowerment solutions: Evaluation of an afterschool program to engage middle school students in community change. Health Education & Behavior, 45(1), 20-31. 2.613 Role of the afterschool program in assisting middle school students and youth empowerment Randomized control study
2. Kremer, K. P., et al. (2015). Effects of afterschool programs with at-risk youth on attendance and externalizing behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(3), 616-636 3.284 Effects of the afterschool program with at-risk youths System reviews: Meta-analysis
3. Berdychevsky, L., Stodolska, M., & Shinew, K. J. (2019). The Roles of Recreation in the Prevention, Intervention, and Rehabilitation Programs Addressing Youth Gang Involvement and Violence. Leisure Sciences, 1-23. 2.40 Importance of recreation in addressing delinquent youth crimes Primary quantitative evidence
4. Veliz, P., & Shakib, S. (2012). Interscholastic Sports Participation and School-Based Delinquency: Does Participation in Sports Foster a Positive High School Environment? Sociological Spectrum, 32(6), 558-580. 0.625 Benefits of interscholastic sports in reducing delinquency among high school students Primary quantitative evidence
5. Hallingberg, B., Moore, S., Morgan, J., Bowen, K., & Van Goozen, S. H. (2015). Adolescent male hazardous drinking and participation in organized activities: Involvement in team sports is associated with less hazardous drinking in young offenders. Criminal behavior and mental health, 25(1), 28-41. 1.571 Effects of team sports in reducing drinking and delinquent behavior among young offenders Randomized controlled trials
6. Roth, J. L., Malone, L. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes? A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 310-324. 3.09 Importance of afterschool programs Systems reviews
7. Hanlon, T. E., et al. (2009). The effectiveness of an afterschool program targeting urban African American youth. Education and Urban Society, 42(1), 96-118. 0.625 Effectiveness of an afterschool program Case-control studies
8. Smith, P. E., Osgood, S. W., Oh, Y., & Caldwell, L. C. (2018). Promoting afterschool quality and positive youth development: a cluster-randomized trial of the Pax Good Behavior Game. Prevention Science, 19(2), 159-173. 2.01 How to promote afterschool quality and positive youth development Randomized trial
9. Taheri, S. A., Welsh, B. C. (2016). Afterschool programs for delinquency prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(3). 2.981 Using afterschool programs in preventing delinquency Systems review: a meta-analysis
10. Spruit, A., et al. (2016). Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 655-671. 3.284 Can sports participation reduce youth delinquency Meta-analysis

PART 3. SELECTING THE BEST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE

(10 Points Total)

NOTE: THE ARTICLE YOU SELECT NEXT WILL BE THE BASIS FOR ALL REMAINING QUESTIONS IN THE ASSIGNMENT.

  1. Next, provide the reference for the article that offers the highest level of evidence for answering the effectiveness practice question you are addressing. Please note that that the article you select must describe an original research study (it cannot be a meta-analysis, systematic review, summary review, or secondary data analysis). Remember that the article should have been published in a peer-reviewed journal that has an Impact Factor for the year the article was published AND it should be no more than ten years old. (5 POINTS)
Zimmerman, M. A., Eisman, A. B., Reischl, T. M., Morrel-Samuels, S., Stoddard, S., Miller, A. L., & Rupp, L. (2018). Youth empowerment solutions: Evaluation of an afterschool program to engage middle school students in community change. Health Education & Behavior, 45(1), 20-31.
  1. State the overall goal of the study described in the article that you selected (i.e., whether the goal was primarily exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, or evaluative) AND, in your own words, was the research question addressed by the study. (5 POINTS)
The study’s overall goal is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) program in reducing problem behaviors, encouraging positive developmental outcomes, and gaining confidence. I believe the article is related to the research question because the YES program applies the empowerment concept to the afterschool idea for middle school adolescents. The ability of the program to create a greater reduction in delinquent behaviors is analyzed and compared with non-exposure. In their study, the researchers established that adolescents who received more components of the treatment group expressed less delinquent behavior, fewer antisocial outcomes, more prosocial outcomes, and psychological empowerment than those who received less intervention. This article was selected because it meets all three selection criteria.

PART 4. CRITICALLY APPRAISING EMPIRICAL RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE

(35 Points Total)

In this part of the assignment, you are asked to critically appraise the evidence offered in the ONE article that you selected. Be sure to address each of the following aspects of evidence:

  1. Strength of the LEVEL of Evidence(5POINTS)– Appraise and summarize the strength of the level of evidence offered in the article. As part of your appraisal and summary, include discussions of how the following influenced the strength of the level of evidence:
    • The type of practice question addressed by the brief, evidence/research hierarchies; and
    • the impact factor of the journal in which the article was published.
The practice question addressed by this article is: Does the YES curriculum program promote youth empowerment, reduce problem behaviors (delinquency), and enhance positive growth outcomes? The impact factor for the Health Education and Behavior journal is 2.613. This demonstrates that the journal is a high-quality source, and its publications contain compelling evidence, which is cited almost three times within one or two years.
  1. Strength of the QUALITY of the Evidence(25POINTS)– Appraise and summarize the strength of the quality of the evidence offered in the article. Be sure to provide details from the study appraised and to apply important concepts and terminology related to methodology. As part of your appraisal and summary, include relevant details and discussions of the appropriateness and rigor of each component of the methodology as presented in the research article, including:
  2. Design methods (5 POINTS)
A modified randomized control study design was used to test the hypothesis that the YES program can promote positive growth outcomes (such as prosocial engagement, academic achievement, and school bonding), adolescent empowerment, and lower negative growth factors (antisocial behavior).
  1. Sampling methods (5 POINTS)
Three hundred and sixty-seven middle school students were recruited from Genesee County, MI, aged between eleven and sixteen (SD = 0.91, mean = 12.71, 40 percent male). The students (29 different cohorts) selected received various components of the YES afterschool program. The selected participants were from thirteen institutions in Genesee and Flint County, with the program lasting for a period of four years. About four schools applied the empowerment program for a total of 4 years, with only one school implementing it for three years. Six schools enrolled in the program for one year, and two schools for about two years. Approximately 32 percent of the youth (n = 117) were identified as white, while 46 percent (n = 170) and 22 percent (n = 80) were African-Americans as well as mixed (Latino, Asian-American, Native American, and others), respectively.

Participants were classified into either usual (n = 114) or YES (N = 124) afterschool care. If between five and eleven students took part in the program throughout the year in a school, they were classified in the YES category.

  1. Measurement methods, including reliability and validity (5 POINTS)
Students completed the pretest and posttest YES program components. The YES program administered and measured comprised psychological empowerment (behavioral, interactional, and intrapersonal) and Youth Outcomes (prosocial, academic effort, antisocial behavior, and delinquent behavior).

An SEM (structural equation modeling) technique was used for data analysis, including both indirect impacts (which measure the YES effect through empowerment) and direct (which evaluate the YES program on adolescent results). Both observed and latent variables were used using a variance estimated and weighted least squares averages with Mplus Version 7.4. Experimental groups/cohort/school clusters were used to reduce any potential biases resulting from empowerment theory. Confirmatory factor analysis was also employed in measuring the latent factors. Finally, a regression model was used to compare the existing relationships between prosocial and antisocial results as well as between PE and YES.

  1. Threats to internal validity, including if/how they were minimized and which ones remain (5 POINTS)
Some of the threats to internal validity emanate from the possibility of other bias factors influencing experimental variables (prosocial and antisocial outcomes, and others) based on the empowerment theory. This implies that there are various causes and explanations for youth problem behaviors, developmental outcomes, delinquency, and lack of confidence besides the empowerment theory. Therefore, there are other potential alternative hypotheses to the experiment. Modifying the YES program and the use of randomization are two ways of minimizing internal validity, especially the bias associated with the empowerment theory.
  1. Threats to external validity, including if/how they were minimized and which ones remain (5 POINTS)
Several external factors affected the validity of the outcomes, including pre-and post-test impacts, sample features, selection bias, as well as situational factors. Exclusion and inclusion criteria and randomized sampling were used to minimize population selection bias, while statistical methods were used to minimize pre-and post-test effects. It was challenging, though, to address the problem with sample features, which limited the generalizability of the outcomes.
  1. APPLICABILITY of the Evidence (5 POINTS) –Appraise and summarize the applicability of the evidence offered in the article. As part of your appraisal and summary, discuss how the goal and research question addressed in the study align with your effectiveness practice question. Also discuss the extent to which each component of your practice question (i.e., P-I-C-O) is reflected in the study. As part of this discussion, summarize the external validity of the study described in the article, including how the sampling methods influenced both the study’s external validity and your assessment of the applicability of the evidence offered in the article.
There is no question that the evidence presented in this article primarily aligns with the effectiveness practice question. The practice question addressed by this article is: Does the YES curriculum program promote youth empowerment, reduce problem behaviors (delinquency), and enhance positive growth outcomes? This is unquestionably, in line with the effectiveness question (PICO): among delinquent youth (P), can exposures to a structured personal skill-based afterschool recreation program (I) result in a greater reduction in delinquent behaviors (O) as opposed to non-exposure to such a program (O)? The article evaluates how the YES (which is an afterschool program) can reduce delinquent behavior as well as create positive growth outcomes (such as prosocial engagement, academic achievement, and school bonding), lower delinquent behavior, improve adolescent empowerment, and decrease negative growth results (antisocial behavior).

Several external factors affected the validity of the outcomes, including pretest and post-test impacts, sample features, selection bias, as well as situational factors. Exclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as randomized sampling, were used to minimize population selection bias. Also, statistical methods were used to reduce pretest and post-test effects. The classification of participants into either usual (n = 114) or YES (N = 124) afterschool groups allowed the researchers to generalize the outcomes. If between five and eleven students took part in the program throughout the year in a school, they were classified as YES.

PART 5. INTERPRETING AND APPLYING THE BEST AVAILABLE EVIDENCE TO IMPROVE PRACTICE, POLICY AND SERVICES

(25 Points Total)

The final part of the assignment focuses on summarizing the results of the study and applying evidence offered in the article to the social work dilemma you are addressing, including the (a) social work practice problem and (b) effectiveness practice question.

  1. Analyses and Results(10 POINTS) – With respect to the results of the study described in the article, briefly summarize the following:
  2. The statistical analyses used by the researchers and your critical assessment of the appropriateness and rigor of the analyses (include ONLY the analyses relevant to your practice question). (5 POINTS)
An SEM (structural equation modeling) technique was used for data analysis, including both indirect impacts (which measure the effects of the YES through empowerment) and direct (effects of the YES program on adolescent outcomes), to measure the hypothesis. Both observed and latent variables using a VEWLSA (variance estimated and weighted least squares averages) approach were used and the Mplus Version 7.4. Experimental groups/cohort/school clusters were used to reduce any potential biases resulting from empowerment theory. A confirmatory factor was utilized to measure the latent factors. Also, a regression model was employed to compare the existing relationships between prosocial and antisocial results as well as between PE and YES. Lastly, the RMSEA (standardization root-mean-square error of approximation) and CFI (comparative fit index) methods were used to calculate model fix indices (X2). I believe these statistical methods, especially the regression model, are rigorous and appropriate because they can assist in exploring the relationship between different variables.
  1. A summary of the results (include ONLY the results relevant to your practice question). (5 POINTS)
The results indicated that participating in the YES afterschool program lowered delinquent behaviors among the youth and improved psychosocial empowerment. The direct effects were specifically applied to psychosocial empowerment determined the relationship between delinquent behavior and YES activities, with African American youth reporting more delinquent (p = 0.12) behavior compared to whites and other minorities. African American youth also reported more aggressive behavior (p = -0.10).
  1. Application and Adaptation of Evidence (15 POINTS) – With respect to the application and adaptation of the evidence offered in the article, briefly address the following:
  2. The answer to the effectiveness practice question that the practice brief revolves around (based on the results of the study)(5 POINTS)
Participants who obtained more parts of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) showed less delinquent and aggressive behavior, due to improved prosocial outcomes and psychological empowerment, compared to those who received fewer components of the intervention.
  1. Your critical assessment of how well the evidence answers your effectiveness practice question given the level, quality, and applicability of the evidence in relation to your practice question, population, and agency. When offering your assessment, take into account your confidence in using the evidence to address the practice problem as approached in the hypothetical scenario. (5 POINTS)
The evidence and results presented, without a doubt, answer the PICO question 100 percent. The use of 367 middle school students from Genesee County, MI, aged between eleven and sixteen (SD=0.91, mean=12.71, 40 percent male) implies that the YES curriculum targeted the right population. The program’s applicability provided a positive youth impact (reducing delinquency behavior levels) by building on cognitive skills and confidence and promoting positive change.
  1. Finally, based on the P-I-C-O components of your practice question, how might the evidence need to be adapted, and what are the implications of adopting the evidence? (5 POINTS)
Based on the PICO components of the practice question [Among delinquent youth (P), can exposure to a structured personal skill-based afterschool recreation program (I) result in a greater reduction in delinquent behaviors (O) as opposed to non-exposure to such a program (O)] adapting the evidence requires several steps. Most importantly, there is a need to integrate all the components of the YES (youth empowerment Solutions), including building psychological empowerment, improving psychological elements, addressing aggressive behavior, and many others. The implication of adapting these measures is a general improvement of delinquency behavior, which can potentially lower youth incarceration rates and the amount of money spent by the federal government to rehabilitate and maintain juvenile offenders.

References

Berdychevsky, L., Stodolska, M., & Shinew, K. J. (2019). The Roles of Recreation in the Prevention, Intervention, and Rehabilitation Programs Addressing Youth Gang Involvement and Violence. Leisure Sciences, 1-23.

Hallingberg, B., Moore, S., Morgan, J., Bowen, K., & Van Goozen, S. H. (2015). Adolescent male hazardous drinking and participation in organized activities: Involvement in team sports is associated with less hazardous drinking in young offenders. Criminal behaviour and mental health, 25(1), 28-41.

Hanlon, T. E., et al. (2009). The effectiveness of an afterschool program targeting urban African American youth. Education and Urban Society, 42(1), 96-118. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840398/

Kremer, K. P., et al. (2015). Effects of afterschool programs with at-risk youth on attendance and externalizing behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(3), 616-636. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4597889/

Roth, J. L., Malone, L. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes? A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 310-324.

Smith, P. E., Osgood, S. W., Oh, Y., & Caldwell, L. C. (2018). Promoting afterschool quality and positive youth development: a cluster-randomized trial of the Pax Good Behavior Game. Prevention Science, 19(2), 159-173.

Spruit, A., et al. (2016). Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 655-671.

Taheri, S. A., Welsh, B. C. (2016). Afterschool programs for delinquency prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14(3). Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1541204014567542

Veliz, P., & Shakib, S. (2012). Interscholastic Sports Participation and School-Based Delinquency: Does Participation in Sports Foster a Positive High School Environment? Sociological Spectrum, 32(6), 558-580.

Zimmerman, M. A., Eisman, A. B., Reischl, T. M., Morrel-Samuels, S., Stoddard, S., Miller, A. L., & Rupp, L. (2018). Youth empowerment solutions: Evaluation of an afterschool program to engage middle school students in community change. Health Education & Behavior, 45(1), 20-31.

ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

We’ll write everything from scratch

Question 


Research Article Appraisal

The overarching aim of Assignment 3 is to prepare you for professional social work practice by enhancing your ability to use research knowledge and evidence to inform practice decisions. Specific aims of the assignment include the following:

Research Article Appraisal

Research Article Appraisal

  1. to provide you with an opportunity to apply an evidence-based practice approach when identifying and conceptualizing practice problems and questions;
  2. to prepare you to effectively use evidence hierarchies and Impact Factors to determine and locate the best available evidence for addressing specified practice problems and questions; and
  3. to guide you through the process of appraising relevant empirical research and interpreting and applying the best available evidence to address specified practice problems and questions.

Effectiveness question addressed in Assignment 2

  • Among delinquent youth (P), can exposure to a structured personal skill-based afterschool recreation program (I) result in greater reduction in delinquent behaviors (O) as opposed to non-exposure to such a program (O).

Have a similar assignment? "Place an order for your assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you A results."

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter


1. Professional & Expert Writers: Eminence Papers only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Eminence Papers are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Eminence Papers are known for the timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Eminence Papers, we have put in place a team of experts who answer all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.

We Can Write It for You! Enjoy 20% OFF on This Order. Use Code SAVE20

Stuck with your Assignment?

Enjoy 20% OFF Today
Use code SAVE20