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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Sample Answer 

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink

(APA format)

Article 1

Rostad, H. M. (2020). Characteristics of nursing home residents with late-stage dementia and pain. Norwegian Journal of Clinical Nursing/Sykeplelen Forskning, 1, 1-18.



Point Description
Broad Topic Area/Title The differences in characteristics/attributes among patients with pain and suffering from late-stage dementia and enrolled/residing in nursing home facilities, as well as the prevalence of pain in these groups.
Problem Statement

(What is the problem research is addressing?)

The issue is that despite previous results indicating that nearly 50 percent of patients in nursing homes suffering from late-stage dementia experience pain, very few studies have researched and documented the characteristics of these residents. Early studies conducted have also primarily focused on cognitively healthy adults. Therefore, there is a need to gain an insight into the typical characteristics/features of residents in nursing homes living with pain and late-stage dementia to be able to identify the needs and complex morbidities of these populations.
Purpose Statement

(What is the purpose of the study?)

The purpose of the research was to survey, obverse, and measure the pain levels and characteristics among residents in nursing homes living with late-stage dementia. The objective, therefore, was to make a comparison between clinical and demographic characteristics between ‘the pain group’ (or a population of residents experiencing pain) and the ‘non-pain group’ (a population of residents experiencing no pain).
Research Questions

(What questions does the research seek to answer?)

1.      “Are there any statistically significant differences residents with and without pain in terms of demographic characteristics (gender and age) and clinical characteristics (ADL, NPS, depressive symptoms, somatic health, quality of life, agitation, use of analgesics and psycholeptics)?”

2.      “What is the prevalence of pain among elderly nursing home residents with late-stage dementia?”

Define Hypothesis

(Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)

The hypothesis is absent. Below is an illustration of a likely hypothesis that the researchers should have stated:

H0: There are no statistically significant levels based on pain levels and demographic characteristics between adults with end-stage/late-stage dementia.

H1: There are no statistically significant levels based on pain levels and demographic characteristics between adults with end-stage/late-stage dementia.

Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables -Independent variables – residents with end-stage/late-stage dementia (aged 65 years and above)

Dependent variables – clinically significant agitation (score of ≥39 on CMAI), clinically significant pain (score of ≥ on Doloplus-2 scale)

Types of Data

Prevalence of pain (evaluated using the Doloplus-2-scale, consisting of 10 questions scored between zero and three).

Depressive symptoms (scored on the Cornell depression scale, comprising of nineteen questions rated between 0-12).

Neuropsychiatric symptoms (calculated using the NPI-NH scale, with behavioral scores ranging between 0-120).

-Agitation (assessed based on the CMAI, with each agitation episode assigned scores ranging from 1 to 7 and the total score range between 29 and 203).

Personal activities of daily living (calculated using the ADL measurement framework, with 6 activities measured on a scale ranging between 0 and 18).

-Quality of life (estimated using the QUALID tool, consisting of 11 accounts that are measured on a 5-point scale).

-Somatic health (calculated by use of the General Medical Health Ratings on a scale of 1 to 4).

Use of psycholeptics and analgesics (evaluated using a yes/no questionnaire).

The population of Interest for Study
End-stage dementia residents from sixteen nursing homes in eastern Norway (four counties).
Sample 121 residents from nursing homes
Sampling Method A mixed-method, including cross-sectional design and quantitative descriptive.
Identify Data Collection

Identify how data were collected

A standardized form was used by registered nurses to gather demographic information, while valid measurement tools were used to obtain medical data about the quality of life and somatic health, personal activities of daily living, agitation, depressive and neuropsychiatric indications/symptoms, and pain.
Summarize Data Collection Approach The study was descriptive, and quantitative in nature with a cross-sectional model. Baseline data was gathered from primary research that assessed the significance levels of usual pain evaluation/assessment on different pain values as well as the application of analgesic drugs among nursing home patients with end-stage/late-stage dementia.
Discuss Data Analysis

Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.

Statistical software (SPSS version 25) was used to analyze data. For continuous variables, sample t-tests (independent) were calculated in order to compare the pain-free category and the ‘pain group.’ Also, the chi-squared test was used to analyze categorical variables. For descriptive analysis, categorical data/variables were presented using relative frequency tables and frequency tables, while standard deviation and mean were used to present continuous variables.
Summarize Results of the Study The research showed that nearly 67 percent (two-thirds) of the population was coping with pain. There was a connection between greater pain levels and the occurrence of depressive symptoms and a higher need for help with daily living activities. The study also found the mean score for quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms among individuals who reported pain compared to those who did not.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations

Identify the assumptions and limitations of the article.

Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.

The first assumption was that the use of reliable, validated, and recognized measurement tools would yield accurate results. But, this is not true considering that measuring variables like pain is subjective. This means that the use of these tools is inadequate and might create errors. Another limitation is that overlapping questions were used in most of the assessment tools (observation-based).



Ethical Considerations

Evaluate the article and identify potential ethical considerations that may have occurred when sampling, collecting data, analyzing data, or publishing results. Summarize your findings below in 250-500 words. Provide rationale and support for your evaluation.

Ethical consideration is an important step that researchers must incorporate in the study, especially when dealing with human subjects, and most countries have laws that compel researchers to seek permission from relevant authorities. In particular, researchers are often required to comply with ethical considerations that might arise due to data sampling, collection, analysis, and publishing. In this study, one of the key ethical considerations taken by Rostad before recruiting participants (adult residents) in the six nursing home facilities in eastern Norway was to seek their consent. The aspect of informed consent is typically a written or oral covenant between the researcher and the participants, with the latter accepting by word of mouth or through an appended signature of their decision to participate voluntarily. In particular, Rostad (2020) used the written informed consent form to notify and inform the relatives of the participants about the procedures/details of the study, the benefits and risks of their participation, and what was expected of them. In addition, Rostad sought approval of his research from the nations’ “Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics.” Seeking ethical approval is necessary before commissioning quantitative and qualitative studies involving human subjects (including their data and tissues) to ensure that the well-being, safety, and rights of those taking part in the research are respected and observed. The term ‘safety’ means that the participants receive the proper protective equipment and remedies that can safeguard them from injury, harm, and death. This also includes providing a safe environment for the study. On the other hand, observing the ‘rights’ of the participants means ensuring that all human subjects are treated equally and justly. It also calls into question the subject of confidentiality, whereby the researcher is obliged to never disclose to a third party or the public anything about the data of the patients. This could be an issue for this experiment because the patients are living with end-stage dementia. Failure to abide by these rules can be subject to litigation.


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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Search the GCU Library and find one new healthcare article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.

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