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topic 12 prenatal substance abuse

topic 12 prenatal substance abuse

Sample Answer 

topic 12 prenatal substance abuse

What Is the Accepted Name of the Condition With Which the Child Will Be Born?

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (Anand & Campbell‐Yeo, 2015)

What Are the Peri-Natal Risks to the Infant?

The clinical presentation of the withdrawal symptoms in a newborn child depends on the drug types the mother used, the time period when she used the drugs, the amount of drugs that the mother last used, and genetic factors. Pathophysiology of drug withdrawal involves complex cerebral alterations in dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine levels.

What Are the Post-Natal Risks to the Infant?

According to Roussos et al. (2015), the risks include a Stuffy nose or sneezing, Diarrhea or throwing up, Trouble sleeping and lots of yawning, Fever, sweating or blotchy skin, Breathing problems, including breathing really fast, poor feeding or sucking or slow weight gain, fussiness, excessive crying or having a high-pitched cry, tight muscle tone seizures (convulsions), body shakes (tremors), and overactive reflexes (twitching).

What Are the Post-Natal Risks to the Mother?

The pregnancy may end up in a pre-term baby (<37 weeks). The patient will need to start on medication-assisted treatment as opposed to supervised withdrawal, as the latter has a higher likelihood of poor outcomes and relapsing.

Is There Any Evidence on the Long-Term Risk to the Child?

One of the largest published studies done between 1985 and 1992 showed that hydrocodone use among pregnant women resulted in cardiovascular defects in newborns. A Swedish study showed offspring malformation with maternal buprenorphine use, and an elevated OR was reported for clubfoot and tramadol (Yazdy, Desai, & Brogly, 2015)


Anand, K. J., & Campbell‐Yeo, M. (2015). Consequences of prenatal opioid use for newborns. Acta Paediatrica104(11), 1066-1069.

Roussos-Ross, K., Reisfield, G., Elliot, I., Dalton, S., & Gold, M. (2015). Opioid use in pregnant women and the increase in neonatal abstinence syndrome: what is the cost?. Journal of addiction medicine9(3), 222-225.

Yazdy, M. M., Desai, R. J., & Brogly, S. B. (2015). Prescription Opioids in Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: A Review of the Literature. Journal of pediatric genetics4(2), 56–70.


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topic 12 prenatal substance abuse


***The initial discussion response should be in the range of 250-300 words. All questions in the topic must be addressed. All discussions need to be supported by a minimum of two scholarly resources. Journals and websites must be cited appropriately (Citation and reference must adhere to APA format). All components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.
Case Study:

Topic 12 – Prenatal Substance Abuse

Topic 12 – Prenatal Substance Abuse

A 21-year-old woman presents for her initial prenatal visit, even though she is well into her third trimester and her EDC is predicted to be within a month or so. Her boyfriend, the father of the child, is not present and has not been supportive to date of the pregnancy. She is also not on good terms with her own parents. Upon initial assessment, she denies alcohol or drug use but after a while, she opens up and talks about an ongoing opioid addiction. She reports taking Percocet bought on the street but due to cost, she has recently begun using heroin. It becomes clear that she will not be “clean” prior to her delivery and that her child will be born also affected by maternal opiate use. Since she has almost no external support, you know that after she delivers, she will be the primary caregiver of the infant and also hopefully working a detox program.

  1. What is the accepted name of the condition with which the child will be born?
  2.  What are the peri-natal risks to the infant?
  3. What are the post-natal risks to the infant?
  4.  What are the post-natal risks to the mother?
  5. Is there any evidence on the long-term risk to the child?

Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.

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