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Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary Embolism

Sample Answer 

Pulmonary Embolism

  1. Disease Description

A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot in one of the pulmonary arteries. Usually caused by a blood clot that travels from the extremities (legs). In rare cases, the clot can come from another part of the body (deep vein thrombosis). Since blood clots can block the blood flow in or to the lungs, it can be life-threatening. However, the disease can be prevented by taking some measures which prevent blood clots in the legs.

  1. Epidemiology of disease:
  • The third leading cause of death in the United States. Around 10 million cases per year
  • Leading cause of unexpected deaths in hospitalized patients and a major source of medical malpractice lawsuits
  • Prevalence: 5-10% of all deaths
  • Incidence: 70 per 100,000 people; most cases occur at 60 to 70 years of age
  • Mortality:

Overall: 18% to 65%

If Treated: Approximately 20%

With cardiogenic shock: 25% to 30%

With resuscitation: 65%

Submassive PE: 5% to 25%

With mobile thrombi in right-heart chambers: As high as 27%

Small PE: Up to 1%

  • Morbidity: Ischemic heart disease, chronic lung disease, liver or renal failure, thrombocytopenia, or cancer

Females have higher rates of morbidity than males

All complications assessed increase with age

  1. Common causes

Most common: Deep vein thrombosis.

More rarely:

  • Fat from the marrow of a broken long bone
  • Part of a tumor
  • Air bubbles
  • Collagen or other tissue
  1. Risk Factors
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • Being pregnant or having given birth in the previous six weeks
  • Diseases such as paralysis, stroke, high blood pressure, or chronic heart diseases
  • Oral contraceptive birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy

References

Hao, Q., Dong, B. R., Yue, J., Wu, T., & Liu, G. J. (2018). Thrombolytic therapy for pulmonary embolism. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (12).

Schaffer, M., & Castelli, G. (2019). What’s the Best Treatment Setting for a Stable Pulmonary Embolism? Clinician Reviews29(5), 3e-4e.

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Question 


Pulmonary Embolism

1)Disease Description

  • Pulmonary embolism is a blood clot in one of the pulmonary arteries. Usually cased by a blood clot that traveled from the extremities(legs). Rarely in come from another part of the body(deep vein thrombosis). Since blood clot can block the blood flow in the or to the lungs it can be life threatening. However you could prevent it, by taking measures of preventing blood clots in your legs.

2) Epidemiology of disease:

  • Third killer of nation. Around 10 million cases per year.
    Prevalence: 5-10% of all deaths
    Incidence: 70 per 100,000 people
    Mortality: if untreated up to 30%, if treated= 8-10%
    Morbidity: I can not find it!!!!!

3) Common causes (no more than 5)
Most common: Deep vein thrombosis.

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary Embolism

More rarely:

  • Fat from the marrow of a broken long bone
  •  Part of a tumor
  •  Air bubbles

4)Risk Factors ( no more than 5)

Add or change. Need to be written in a simple language

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