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Kidney Stones/Gallstones

Kidney Stones/Gallstones

Sample Answer 

Kidney Stones/Gallstones

Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, and Treatment of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones and gallstones are a common cause of emergency visits associated with abdominal pain. Kidney stones are hard deposits of salts that stick together in concentrated urine, causing pain when passing through the urinary tract. On the other hand, gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that settle in the gallbladder. Gallstones are also a common cause of abdominal pain. Although these two conditions are similar, they have different causes, prevention tactics, and treatments.


            Kidney stones are mainly caused by a lack of adequate water in the body. Lack of water in the body prevents the salts from dissolving properly, thus, causing stones. Therefore, people who drink less than recommended water per day have a higher chance of getting stones (Sakhaee, Maalouf, & Sinnott, 2012). However, kidney stones can also be a result of high acidity in the urine. There are conditions such as urinary tract infection, Crohn’s disease, and hyperparathyroidism that can cause an acidic environment to increase the risks of kidney stones (Sakhaee, Maalouf, & Sinnott, 2012).

Gallstones are caused by high amounts of bilirubin or cholesterol in the gallbladder. There are several risk factors that can trigger the formation of gallstones (Gurusamy & Davidson, 2014). For instance, being overweight, using birth control medications, and going through rapid weight loss that is triggered by starvation can cause the formation of gallstones (Gurusamy & Davidson, 2014). They can also be caused by poor flow of bile from the gallbladder, which is a result of muscle issues or a blockage in the gallbladder.


            Kidney stones cause severe abdominal pain, usually in the groin area or the side. It leads to a reduced amount of urine and sometimes blood in the urine. Even though the urine is reduced, one feels a persistent urge to urinate (Sakhaee, Maalouf, & Sinnott, 2012). Whenever one tries to urinate, one feels a burning sensation. White deposits are present in the urine when one has kidney stones. Vomiting and nausea may also be experienced.

Gallstones are also associated with abdominal pain, but the pain is experienced in the upper part of the abdomen. Other shared symptoms with kidney stones include vomiting and nausea. Gallstones are also associated with digestive problems such as bloating, heartburn, indigestion, and gas (Gurusamy & Davidson, 2014).


            Kidney stones can be prevented by avoiding high-sodium diets. Sodium promotes the formation of calcium in the urine, which can form stones. Avoiding high-sodium foods can help to reduce this risk (Sakhaee, Maalouf, & Sinnott, 2012). Kidney stones can also be prevented by consuming adequate amounts of water.

Gallstones can be prevented by taking sensible diets. Low-calorie diets of less than 500 calories can increase the risk of getting gallstones. Low-fat diets with high fiber can also help to reduce the formation of gallstones (Gurusamy & Davidson, 2014). It is also advisable to minimize cholesterol consumption to reduce the risk of gallstones.


            Treatment of kidney stones mainly focuses on symptom management. The process of passing out kidney stones is very painful; thus, medications are needed to manage the pain. For more serious cases, medical procedures can be sued to remove the stones, such as Ureteroscopic stone removal, Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and Laser lithotripsy. In case the stones are caused by another condition, then treatment for that condition is also offered. One may undergo Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic surgery to remove gallstones (Abraham et al., 2014). However, treatment for the stones requires better care of the body. Improved diets can help to eliminate stones.


Abraham, S., Rivero, H. G., Erlikh, I. V., Griffith, L. F., & Kondamudi, V. K. (2014). Surgical and nonsurgical management of gallstones. American family physician, 89(10).

Gurusamy, K. S., & Davidson, B. R. (2014). Gallstones. Bmj, 348, g2669.

Sakhaee, K., Maalouf, N. M., & Sinnott, B. (2012). Kidney stones 2012: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97(6), 1847-1860.


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Kidney Stones/Gallstones

Kidney stones and Gallstones is one of the most common causes of emergency room admissions for abdominal pain. List the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of one of these painful conditions.

Kidney Stones- Gallstones

Kidney Stones- Gallstones

(Minimum length of paper 500 words.) Papers need to be referenced and follow APA formatting guidelines

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