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Gastric Surgery for Weight-Loss

Gastric Surgery for Weight-Loss

Sample Answer 

Gastric Surgery for Weight-Loss   

Overweight and obesity are significant issues affecting a large percentage of people. There are several options for people who want to lose some weight for health or cosmetic reasons. Gastric surgery is one of the options for weight loss. This is a surgery that leads to weight loss by changing how the stomach or intestines handle food. This essay evaluates the types of gastric surgeries and their risks.

Types of Gastric Surgeries used for Weight Loss

There are four main types of gastric surgeries commonly used for weight loss; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Sleeve gastrectomy, and Duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, commonly known as a gastric bypass, is done by stapling the stomach and creating a smaller pouch at the top to hold food. The small intestine is then reattached to the pouch for the pouch to bypass the rest of the stomach (Buchwald & Oien, 2013). The smaller size of the usable stomach limits the amount of food one can comfortably take at a time. Therefore, it limits the amount of calories taken, leading to weight loss. This also leads to food bypassing a bigger part of the small intestines. Thus, fewer calories and nutrients are absorbed.

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding uses a laparoscopic incision to install an inflatable band tied to the top part of the stomach. This band creates a pouch on top of the stomach. When this pouch is full, it triggers the release of peptide YY that leads to a person feeling full after much less intake of food than would be required for their stomach size (Buchwald & Oien, 2013). This leads to the intake of fewer calories but not less absorption.

A sleeve gastrectomy works by cutting a part of the stomach. The remaining stomach is made into a tube-like structure, which has less area to hold food (Buchwald & Oien, 2013). This surgery works by reducing appetite and helping a person to feel full much faster, thus reducing food intake. Fewer calories and nutrients are taken when this surgery is done.

Lastly, a duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion is a more complex surgery than the others. This involves two procedures; the first is similar to sleeve gastrectomy as it cuts the stomach size. The second surgery bypasses the smaller intestines from the duodenum to the last section to prevent food from going through most of the small intestines but still mixing with the digestive juices (Buchwald & Oien, 2013).

Potential Risks and Complications from these Surgeries

            There are several issues, which are associated with gastric surgeries. One of the effects of the potential complications of these surgeries is dumping syndrome. Gastric syndrome occurs when good from the stomach is directly dumped into the small intestine without digestion. This can lead to bloating, constant hunger, abdominal pain, nausea, dizziness, or fainting. Gastric surgeries can also lead to malnutrition (Buchwald & Oien, 2013). People can experience nutritional deficiency from the extremely limited intake of foods caused by these surgeries. This is worse for surgeries that limit the absorption of calories and nutrients in the small intestines (Buchwald & Oien, 2013).

Weight Regain after Gastric Surgery

            Maintaining weight loss after gastric surgery is not guaranteed. According to Velapati et al. (2018), only 40% of the people who undergo gastric surgeries maintain over 30% of weight loss in a period of 12 years. Over 50% of patients gain back 5% of the lost weight within the first two years. The weight gain can be caused by a lack of adherence to recommended diets after surgery, eating disorders, and lack of physical activity (Maleckas et al., 2016). Thus, one has to exercise precautions after surgery to avoid gaining weight back.

References

Buchwald, H., & Oien, D. M. (2013). Metabolic/bariatric surgery worldwide 2011. Obesity surgery23(4), 427-436.

Maleckas, A., Gudaitytė, R., Petereit, R., Venclauskas, L., & Veličkienė, D. (2016). Weight regain after gastric bypass: etiology and treatment options. Gland surgery5(6), 617.

Velapati, S. R., Shah, M., Kuchkuntla, A. R., Abu-Dayyeh, B., Grothe, K., Hurt, R. T., & Mundi, M. S. (2018). Weight regain after bariatric surgery: prevalence, etiology, and treatment. Current nutrition reports7(4), 329-334.

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Question 


Gastric Surgery for Weight-Loss

In this paper, you will address the following:

  • What are the main types of gastric surgery used for weight loss?

    Gastric Surgery for Weight-Loss

    Gastric Surgery for Weight-Loss

  • What are the potential risks or complications of these surgeries?
  • What percentage of patients regain their weight? How does this occur?

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